A Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute provides specific details about a QDM data element. QDM versions 5.5 and 5.6 include only datatype-specific attributes, i.e., metadata, or information about each QDM datatype that might be used in eCQM expressions to provide necessary details for calculation.
A Quality Data Model (QDM) category consists of a single clinical concept identified by a value set. A category is the highest level of definition for a QDM element. The QDM currently contains 22 categories. Some examples of categories are Medication, Procedure, Condition/Diagnosis/Problem, Communication, and Encounter.
A Quality Data Model (QDM) data element encapsulates a certain category with an associated datatype. It is a discrete unit of information used in quality measurement to describe part of the clinical care process, including a clinical entity and its context of use. It can include criteria for any relevant metadata about a clinical or administrative concept relevant to quality measurement. A QDM data element provides an unambiguous definition and enables consistent capture and use of data for quality measurement. It may be defined for any given measure and reused when the same information is required for another measure. Reuse encourages standardization of quality measures and reduces the generation of additional software requirements for every new measure.
A Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype is the context in which each category is used to describe a part of the clinical care process. Examples of QDM datatypes include "Medication, Active" and "Medication, Administered" as applied to the QDM Medication category.
Quality Data Model (QDM) entities represent concepts that can be used to specify details about the actor (or performer) of any QDM datatype. An eCQM can use the entities to provide further information required for an individual or organization actor to meet the measure's criteria.
Qualitative assessments use approaches such as focus groups, in-depth interviews, detailed behavioral observations, or analysis of written or spoken text, typically to gain an understanding of motivations or opinions.
A quality measure is a standard for measuring the performance and improvement of population health or of health plans, providers of services, and other clinicians in the delivery of health care services (Pub. L. 111-148, §931).
Quantitative assessments use numerically based methods, typically supported by statistical analyses, to show relationships between independent and dependent variables to facilitate description, prediction, and establishing of causal relationships.