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All A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W
Data capture

Data capture, or electronic data capture, is the process of extracting information from a paper or electronic document and converting it into data readable by a computer. Hyland. (n.d.). What is data capture? Retrieved March 20, 2024, from

Data element

A data element is any unit of data defined for processing, e.g., account number, name, address, and city.

Data element validity

Data element validity is the extent to which the information represented by the data element or code used in the measure reflects the actual concept or event intended. For example, use of a medication code as a proxy for a diagnosis code and data element response categories that include all values necessary to provide an accurate response.

See also measure validity.

Data model

A data model is an abstract model organizing elements of data and standardizing how they relate to one another. For instance, a data model linking guideline information with clinical data for the patient. Taylor, D. (2023). Data modelling: Conceptual, logical, physical model types. Retrieved March 20, 2024, from

Decision Model and Notation

Decision Model and Notation (DNM) is a standard published by the Object Management Group. It is a standard approach for describing and modeling repeatable decisions within organizations to ensure decision models are interchangeable across organizations. Oliveira, W. (2018, August 21) What is decision model and notation (DMN)? Retrieved March 20, 2024, from

Decision tree or algorithm

A decision tree is an upside-down tree to help make decisions based on the conditions present in the data. It is a supervised machine learning algorithm where data are continuously divided at each row based on certain rules until the final outcome is generated. Great Learning Team. (2022, October 21). Decision tree algorithm explained with examples. Retrieved March 20, 2024, from


The denominator is the lower part of a fraction used to calculate a rate, proportion, or ratio. It can be the same as the initial population or a subset of the initial population to further constrain the population for the purpose of the measure. Continuous variable measures do not have a denominator, but instead define a measure population.

Denominator exception

A denominator exception is any condition that should remove a patient, procedure, or unit of measurement from the denominator of the performance rate only if the numerator criteria are not met. A denominator exception allows for adjustment of the calculated score for those measured entities with higher risk populations. A denominator exception also provides for the exercise of clinical judgment and the measure developer should specifically define where to capture the information in a structured manner that fits the clinical workflow. The measured entity removes denominator exception cases from the denominator. However, the measured entity may still report the number of patients with valid exceptions. Allowable reasons fall into three general categories - medical reasons, patient reasons, or system reasons. Only proportion measures use a denominator exception.

Denominator exclusion

A denominator exclusion is a case the measured entity should remove from the measure population and denominator before determining if numerator criteria are met. Proportion and ratio measures use denominator exclusions to help narrow the denominator. For example, a measure developer would list patients with bilateral lower extremity amputations as a denominator exclusion for a measure requiring foot exams. Continuous variable measures may use denominator exclusions but may use the term measure population exclusion instead of denominator exclusion.

Derivative products

Derivative products, with respect to clinical practice guidelines, are products with content derived from the content of the practice guideline, e.g., clinical decision support, patient/family guides, pocket cards, phone apps for clinicians, continuing education programs.

Digital platform

A digital platform is an established device or web-based platform for presenting cloud technology and content, such as Facebook, X (formerly Twitter), Blogs, Websites, and sometimes short message service. This is in contrast to an analog platform, e.g., billboards, direct mail, telemarketing, events, word-of-mouth.

Digital quality measure (dQM)

CMS draft definition - Digital quality measures (dQMs) are quality measures, organized as self-contained measure specifications and code packages, that use one or more sources of health information that is captured and can be transmitted electronically via interoperable systems. Data sources for dQMs may include administrative systems, electronically submitted clinical assessment data, case management systems, electronic health records, laboratory systems, prescription drug monitoring programs, instruments (for example, medical devices and wearable devices), patient portals or applications (for example, for collection of patient-generated data such as a home blood pressure monitor, or patient-reported health data), health information exchanges, or registries, and other sources.

Direct reference code (DRC)

A direct reference code (DRC) is a specific code referenced directly in the electronic clinical quality measure logic to describe a data element or one of its attributes. DRC metadata include the description of the code, the code system including the code, and the version of that code system.