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CMS Measure ID: CMS144v10    Performance/Reporting Period: 2022    Version: 10    NQF Number: 0083e
Description:

Percentage of patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) with a current or prior left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% who were prescribed beta-blocker therapy either within a 12-month period when seen in the outpatient setting OR at each hospital discharge

Data Elements and coded QDM Attributes contained within the eCQM

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Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for medications containing ingredients for beta blocker therapy.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Allergy/Intolerance.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent an allergy or intolerance for prescribable beta blockers.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Allergy, Intolerance: Beta Blocker Therapy Ingredient value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1493)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Allergy Intolerance"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the allergy or intolerance and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • The prevalence period references the time from the onset date to the abatement date. Often an abatement date is not present as allergy or intolerance is ongoing.
  • The author dateTime references the recorded time.
Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Substance with beta adrenergic receptor antagonist mechanism of action (substance)' SNOMEDCT code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Allergy Intolerance"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the allergy or intolerance and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • The prevalence period references the time from the onset date to the abatement date. Often an abatement date is not present as allergy or intolerance is ongoing.
  • The author dateTime references the recorded time.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for a cardiac pacer device.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Device.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a device that is a cardiac pacer.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Device, Applied: Cardiac Pacer value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1193)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Device, Applied"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the device indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in use, or impacts or alters the treatment, care plan, or encounter (e.g., an antithrombotic device has been placed on the patient's legs to prevent thromboembolism or a cardiac pacemaker is in place).


Timing:

  • relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - when the device is inserted or first used.
    • stopTime - when the device is removed or last used.
    • relevantPeriod references a start and stop time for a device if the application occurred over a time interval.
  • relevant dateTime addresses the time the device is applied if it was used at a single point in time.
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

See Appendix 6.1 for updated guidance regarding how to use Device, Applied

 

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of a diagnosis of an allergy to beta blocker therapy.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a diagnosis of an allergy to beta blocker therapy.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Allergy to Beta Blocker Therapy value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1177)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of a diagnosis of arrhythmia.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a diagnosis of arrhythmia.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Arrhythmia value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.366)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of diagnoses for asthma.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a diagnosis of asthma.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Asthma value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.362)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of a diagnosis of atrioventricular block.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a diagnosis of atrioventricular block.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Atrioventricular Block value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.367)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for diagnoses of bradycardia.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a diagnosis of bradycardia.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Bradycardia value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.412)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of a diagnosis of cardiac pacer in situ.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a diagnosis of cardiac pacer in situ.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Cardiac Pacer in Situ value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.368)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for diagnoses of heart failure.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a diagnosis of heart failure.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes concepts that represent chronic and acute right-sided heart failure, right heart failure, right ventricular failure, cardiac insufficiency due to prosthesis and following cardiac surgery, or pulmonale.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Heart Failure value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.376)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for diagnoses of hypotension.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a diagnosis of hypotension.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Hypotension value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.370)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of a diagnosis of an intolerance to beta blocker therapy.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a diagnosis of an intolerance to beta blocker therapy.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Intolerance to Beta Blocker Therapy value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1178)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (disorder)' SNOMEDCT code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of a diagnosis of moderate or severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a diagnosis of moderate or severe LVSD.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Moderate or Severe LVSD value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1090)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of diagnostic studies for ejection fraction.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Diagnostic Study.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a diagnostic study for obtaining left ventricular ejection fraction.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnostic Study, Performed: Ejection Fraction value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1134)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnostic Study, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the completion of the diagnostic study indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevant dateTime references the time the diagnostic study is performed if it occurs at a single point in time.
  • relevantPeriod references a start and stop time for an assessment that occurs over a time interval:
    • startTime - when the diagnostic study is initiated.
    • stopTime - when the diagnostic study is completed.
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criterion.

Examples using relevantPeriod:

  • Initiation of a treadmill stress test to the time the treadmill stress test has completed
  • Initiation of the ultrasound study until completion of the ultrasound study

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

 

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for encounters for patients living in assisted living, domiciliary care or rest homes.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent an encounter for services provided to new and established patients living in assisted living, domiciliary care or rest home who have had an interaction with a member of their medical team.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes concepts that represent an encounter for settings other than assisted living, domiciliary care, or rest homes.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Care Services in Long-Term Residential Facility value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1014)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Encounter, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for encounters for inpatient hospital discharge services.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent an encounter for hospital discharge day management.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes concepts that represent encounters other than inpatient hospital discharge services.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Discharge Services - Hospital Inpatient value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1007)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Encounter, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for encounters for home health visits.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent an encounter for a home health visit for the evaluation and management of a new or established patient.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Home Healthcare Services value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1016)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Encounter, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for encounters in a nursing facility.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent an encounter specific to a nursing facility, including skilled, intermediate and long term care facilities.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes concepts that represent an encounter other than a nursing facility visits.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Nursing Facility Visit value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1012)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Encounter, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for encounters for an outpatient visit.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent an encounter for the comprehensive history, evaluation, and management of a patient presenting with minor to high severity problems.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Office Visit value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1001)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Encounter, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for encounters for outpatient interactions with a member of the medical care team.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent an encounter for the comprehensive history, evaluation, and management of a patient presenting with minor to high severity problems.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Outpatient Consultation value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1008)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Encounter, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for encounters or communications.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent an encounter in an office or care setting, as well as interactions that occur via virtual methods, such as telephone calls, emails, and letters.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Patient Provider Interaction value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1012)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Encounter, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of medications for beta blocker therapy for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Medication.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a medication for generic and prescribable bisoprolol, carvedilol, or sustained release metoprolol succinate.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes concepts that represent non-prescribable branded drugs, components or ingredients.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Active: Beta Blocker Therapy for LVSD value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1184)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Medication, Active"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the medication indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is being taken by the patient. Keep in mind that when this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for a medication being taken for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing:

  • relevant dateTime references the time the medication is active on the medication record if it was given or taken at a single point in time.
  • relevantPeriod references a start and stop time for an active medication on the medication record that is given or taken over a time interval:
  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - when the medication is first known to be used (generally the time of entry on the medication list).
    • stopTime - when the medication is no longer active.

In the original QDM 5.5 publication, stopTime stated: when the medication is discontinued (generally, the time discontinuation is recorded on the medication list). See Appendix 6.3 for clarification regarding definition of "Medication, Active" relevantPeriod stopTime.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of medications for beta blocker therapy for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Medication.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a medication for generic and prescribable bisoprolol, carvedilol, or sustained release metoprolol succinate.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes concepts that represent non-prescribable branded drugs, components or ingredients.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Discharge: Beta Blocker Therapy for LVSD value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1184)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Medication, Discharge"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the medications indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set should be taken by or given to the patient after being discharged from an inpatient encounter.

Note: the QDM "Medication, Discharge" datatype includes the supply attribute since some EHRs populate some medications on the medications discharge list provided to the patient from prescriptions written at discharge. Therefore, such newly prescribed medications may include the supply prescribed. Other medications on the discharge medication list will not have supply information since they represent medications for which the patient already has a supply at home or those the patient may purchase without prescription (i.e., over-the-counter). Thus, measure developers need to address data availability and feasibility when using the supply attribute with "Medication, Discharge".

Timing: The time the discharge medication list on the discharge instruction form is authored.

The "Medication, Discharge" QDM datatype includes two performers or actors - prescriber and recorder. The list of medications a patient should take after hospital discharge may come from two sources. The first source originates from medications ordered from a community pharmacy directly from the clinical software (e.g., eprescribing). That source will include the prescriber. The second method of providing content for the discharge medication list is via entry of medications known to be present in the home or over-the-counter substances, neither of which result in a prescription. The individual entering these latter medications is the recorder. Hence, content in the discharge medication list may include both performers.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
 

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of medications for beta blocker therapy for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Medication.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a medication for generic and prescribable bisoprolol, carvedilol, or sustained release metoprolol succinate.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes concepts that represent non-prescribable branded drugs, components or ingredients.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Order: Beta Blocker Therapy for LVSD value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1184)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Medication, Order"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document a request to a pharmacy to provide the medication indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevantPeriod addresses the time referenced in the dosage instruction indicating when the medication administration should start and end.
  • In the initial publication of QDM 5.5, relevantPeriod referenced the validity period, i.e., the time period for which the ordered supply is authorized by the prescription authorizing the dispensing event.
  • For clarification, see Appendix 6.4 with additional guidance for referencing relevantPeriod updating the definition for Medication, Order, "Medication Dispensed", and "Substance, Order".
  • author dateTime references the date and time the medication order (prescription) is authored.

Notes:

  • When calculating cumulative medication duration, the stopTime may be present directly in the medication order. If the stopTime is not available, the duration in days is the difference between the relevantPeriod start and stop times multiplied by (1 + the number of refills).
  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Refer to Special Cases in Appendix A (Section 5.7) for scenarios to consider in calculating cumulative medication duration.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for medical reasons for not receiving a therapy or service.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Negation Rationale.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that describe a medical reason for not receiving a therapy or service.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: Medical Reason 1 value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1007)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

negationRationale

Indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the negation rationale attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes a world view that absence of evidence indicates information does not exist or an action did not happen. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use the CQL expression not exists with reference to the data element rather than the QDM data model. negation rationale in QDM signifies only a reason for such absence, i.e., the reason must be present to qualify for negation rationale. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is addressed in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, "Procedure, Performed not done." QDM versions starting with 5.3 use the syntax, "Procedure, not Performed." Section A-5 provides examples for expressing negation rationale in CQL.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for patient-specific reasons for not receiving a therapy or service.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Negation Rationale.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a patient-specific reason for not receiving a therapy or service.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: Patient Reason value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1008)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

negationRationale

Indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the negation rationale attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes a world view that absence of evidence indicates information does not exist or an action did not happen. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use the CQL expression not exists with reference to the data element rather than the QDM data model. negation rationale in QDM signifies only a reason for such absence, i.e., the reason must be present to qualify for negation rationale. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is addressed in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, "Procedure, Performed not done." QDM versions starting with 5.3 use the syntax, "Procedure, not Performed." Section A-5 provides examples for expressing negation rationale in CQL.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts for system-specific reasons for not receiving a therapy or service.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Negation Rationale.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a system-specific reason for not receiving a therapy or service.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: System Reason value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1009)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

negationRationale

Indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the negation rationale attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes a world view that absence of evidence indicates information does not exist or an action did not happen. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use the CQL expression not exists with reference to the data element rather than the QDM data model. negation rationale in QDM signifies only a reason for such absence, i.e., the reason must be present to qualify for negation rationale. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is addressed in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, "Procedure, Performed not done." QDM versions starting with 5.3 use the syntax, "Procedure, not Performed." Section A-5 provides examples for expressing negation rationale in CQL.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Birth date' LOINC code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Patient Characteristic, Birthdate"

The "Patient Characteristic Birthdate" should document the patient’s date of birth.

Timing: The "Patient Characteristic, Birthdate" is a single point in time representing the date and time of birth. It does not have a start and stop time.

Note: "Patient Characteristic Birthdate" is fixed to LOINC code 21112-8 (Birth date) and therefore cannot be further qualified with a value set.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: n/a Data Element Scope: n/a Inclusion Criteria: n/a Exclusion Criteria: n/a

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity: Ethnicity value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.837)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the ethnicities indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Ethnicity does not have a specific timing. Measures using "Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity" should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: Categories of types of health care payor entities as defined by the US Public Health Data Consortium SOP code system
Data Element Scope: @code in CCDA r2.1 template Planned Coverage [act: identifier urn:oid:2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.129 (open)] DYNAMIC
Inclusion Criteria: All codes in the code system
Exclusion Criteria: none

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Payer: Payer value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.3591)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Patient Characteristic, Payer"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the payers indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

The relevantPeriod addresses:

  • startTime – the first day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer.
  • stopTime – the last day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: n/a Data Element Scope: n/a Inclusion Criteria: n/a Exclusion Criteria: n/a

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Race: Race value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.836)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Patient Characteristic, Race"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the patient’s race.

Timing: Race does not have a specific timing. Measures using "Patient Characteristic, Race" should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: Gender identity restricted to only Male and Female used in administrative situations requiring a restriction to these two categories.
Data Element Scope: Gender
Inclusion Criteria: Male and Female only.
Exclusion Criteria: Any gender identity that is not male or female.

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Sex: ONC Administrative Sex value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Patient Characteristic, Sex"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient's sex matches the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Birth (administrative) sex does not have a specific timing.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of a physical exam measuring heart rate.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Physical Exam.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a physical exam for obtaining heart rate.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Physical Exam, Performed: Heart Rate value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1176)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Physical Exam, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the completion of the physical exam indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevant dateTime references the time the physical exam is performed when the physical exam occurs at a single point in time.
  • relevantPeriod references a start and stop time for a physical exam that occurs over a time interval. relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the physical exam begins.
    • stopTime - The time the physical exam ends.
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • Timing refers to a single instance of a physical examination activity. If a measure seeks to evaluate multiple physical examination activities over a period of time, the measure developer should use CQL logic to represent the query request.
  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: The purpose of this value set is to represent concepts of severe and moderate levels of severity.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use a model element related to Severity.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes concepts that represent a Allergy/Intolerance, Adverse Event, Diagnosis, or Symptom with a severity of severe and moderate levels.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Severity: Moderate Or Severe value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1092)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

severity

Indicates the intensity of the specified datatype (e.g., persistent, moderate, or severe).