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Anti-depressant Medication Management

Compare Versions of: "Anti-depressant Medication Management"

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Measure Information 2022 Performance Period 2023 Performance Period 2024 Performance Period 2025 Performance Period
Title Anti-depressant Medication Management Anti-depressant Medication Management Anti-depressant Medication Management Antidepressant Medication Management
CMS eCQM ID CMS128v10 CMS128v11 CMS128v12 CMS128v13
CBE ID Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable
MIPS Quality ID 009 009 009 009
Measure Steward National Committee for Quality Assurance National Committee for Quality Assurance National Committee for Quality Assurance National Committee for Quality Assurance
Description

Percentage of patients 18 years of age and older who were treated with antidepressant medication, had a diagnosis of major depression, and who remained on an antidepressant medication treatment. Two rates are reported.

a. Percentage of patients who remained on an antidepressant medication for at least 84 days (12 weeks).

b. Percentage of patients who remained on an antidepressant medication for at least 180 days (6 months).

Percentage of patients 18 years of age and older who were treated with antidepressant medication, had a diagnosis of major depression, and who remained on an antidepressant medication treatment. Two rates are reported.

a. Percentage of patients who remained on an antidepressant medication for at least 84 days (12 weeks).

b. Percentage of patients who remained on an antidepressant medication for at least 180 days (6 months).

Percentage of patients 18 years of age and older who were treated with antidepressant medication, had a diagnosis of major depression, and who remained on an antidepressant medication treatment. Two rates are reported.

a. Percentage of patients who remained on an antidepressant medication for at least 84 days (12 weeks).

b. Percentage of patients who remained on an antidepressant medication for at least 180 days (6 months).

Percentage of patients 18 years of age and older who were treated with antidepressant medication, had a diagnosis of major depression, and who remained on an antidepressant medication treatment. Two rates are reported.

a. Percentage of patients who remained on an antidepressant medication for at least 84 days (12 weeks).

b. Percentage of patients who remained on an antidepressant medication for at least 180 days (6 months).

Measure Scoring Proportion measure Proportion measure Proportion measure Proportion measure
Measure Type Process Process Process Process
Stratification *See CMS128v10.html *See CMS128v11.html

None

None

Risk Adjustment *See CMS128v10.html *See CMS128v11.html

None

None

Rationale *See CMS128v10.html *See CMS128v11.html

Depression affects over 17 million adults in the U.S. (NIMH, 2021) and is estimated to affect nearly a quarter of adults in their lifetime (Burcusa & Iacono, 2007). Symptoms of depression include disturbances in appetite and sleep, anxiety, decreased concentration, and suicidal ideation (NAMI, 2017; Charbonneau et al., 2005). When left untreated, depression can have a dramatic effect on one’s quality of life, causing constant feelings of hopelessness, loss of interest in daily activities and in some cases suicidal ideation (SAMHSA, 2014).

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) recommends use of antidepressant medication and behavioral therapies, such as psychotherapy, for the treatment and management of depression (APA, 2010). For the past 60 years, antidepressant medication has proven to be effective, especially for patients with more severe symptoms (Fournier, 2010). However, studies analyzing adherence to antidepressant medications found that prevalence of nonadherence was high, ranging from 13 percent to 55.7 percent (Sansone, 2012).

Clinical guidelines for depression emphasize the importance of effective clinical management in increasing patients’ medication compliance, monitoring treatment effectiveness, and identifying and managing side effects. If pharmacological treatment is initiated, appropriate dosing and continuation of therapy through the acute and continuation phases decrease recurrence of symptoms. Thus, the evaluation of the duration of pharmacological treatment serves as an important indicator in understanding patient compliance with establishing and maintaining an effective medication regimen.

Depression affects over 17 million adults in the U.S. (NIMH, 2021) and is estimated to affect nearly a quarter of adults in their lifetime (Burcusa & Iacono, 2007). Symptoms of depression include disturbances in appetite and sleep, anxiety, decreased concentration, and suicidal ideation (NAMI, 2017; Charbonneau et al., 2005). When left untreated, depression can have a dramatic effect on one’s quality of life, causing constant feelings of hopelessness, loss of interest in daily activities and in some cases suicidal ideation (SAMHSA, 2014).

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) recommends use of antidepressant medication and behavioral therapies, such as psychotherapy, for the treatment and management of depression (APA, 2010). For the past 60 years, antidepressant medication has proven to be effective, especially for patients with more severe symptoms (Fournier et al., 2010). However, studies analyzing adherence to antidepressant medications found that prevalence of nonadherence was high, ranging from 13 percent to 55.7 percent (Sansone, 2012).

Clinical guidelines for depression emphasize the importance of effective clinical management in increasing patients’ medication compliance, monitoring treatment effectiveness, and identifying and managing side effects. If pharmacological treatment is initiated, appropriate dosing and continuation of therapy through the acute and continuation phases decrease recurrence of symptoms. Thus, the evaluation of the duration of pharmacological treatment serves as an important indicator in understanding patient compliance with establishing and maintaining an effective medication regimen.

Clinical Recommendation Statement *See CMS128v10.html *See CMS128v11.html

American Psychological Association (2019):

- "For initial treatment of adult patients with depression, the panel recommends the following in the context of sharing decision-making with the patient when considering options:

1. That clinicians offer either psychotherapy or second-generation antidepressant.

2. If considering combined treatment, the panel recommends cognitive-behavioral therapy or interpersonal psychotherapy plus a second-generation antidepressant.”

 

- “For initial treatment of older adult patients with depression, the panel recommends the following in the context of shared decision-making with the patient:

1. Either group life review treatment or Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (either alone or added to usual care) over no treatment

2. Combined pharmacotherapy and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) over IPT alone. Of note, while the study upon which this is based used nortriptyline, the panel recommends a second-generation antidepressant due to the reduced risk of side effects.”

American Psychiatric Association (2010):

- “An antidepressant medication is recommended as an initial treatment choice for patients with mild to moderate major depressive disorder [I: Recommended with substantial clinical confidence] and definitely should be provided for those with severe major depressive disorder unless electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is planned [I: Recommended with substantial clinical confidence].”

- Patients should be given a realistic notion of what can be expected during the different phases of treatment, including the likely time course of symptom response and the importance of adherence for successful treatment and prophylaxis [I].

- During the acute phase of treatment, patients should be carefully and systematically monitored on a regular basis to assess their response to pharmacotherapy, identify the emergence of side effects (e.g., gastrointestinal symptoms, sedation, insomnia, activation, changes in weight, and cardiovascular, neurological, anticholinergic, or sexual side effects), and assess patient safety [I].

- “During the continuation phase of treatment, the patient should be carefully monitored for signs of possible relapse [I: Recommended with substantial clinical confidence]. Systematic assessment of symptoms, side effects, adherence, and functional status is essential [I: Recommended with substantial clinical confidence], and may be facilitated through the use of clinician- and/or patient-administered rating scales [II: Recommended with moderate clinical confidence]. To reduce the risk of relapse, patients who have been treated successfully with antidepressant medications in the acute phase should continue treatment with these agents for 4–9 months [I: Recommended with substantial clinical confidence].”

Department of Veterans Affairs, and Health Affairs, Department of Defense (2022):

- “For patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), we suggest using a quantitative measure of depression severity in the initial treatment planning and to monitor treatment progress at regular intervals to guide shared treatment decision making.” [Weak for]

 

- “In patients with MDD who achieve remission with antidepressant medication, we recommend continuation of antidepressants at the therapeutic dose for at least six months to decrease risk of relapse.”

Department of Veterans Affairs, and Health Affairs, Department of Defense (2016):

- ”In patients at high risk for recurrent depressive episodes and who are treated with pharmacotherapy, we recommend offering maintenance pharmacotherapy for at least 12 months and possibly indefinitely.” [Strong For]

 

- “After initiation of therapy or a change in treatment, we recommend monitoring patients at least monthly until the patient achieves remission. At minimum, assessments should include a measure of symptoms, adherence to medication and psychotherapy, and emergence of adverse effects.” [Strong For]

- “In patients with MDD who achieve remission with antidepressant medication, we recommend continuation of antidepressants at the therapeutic dose for at least six months to decrease risk of relapse.” [Strong For]

American Psychological Association (2019):

- "For initial treatment of adult patients with depression, the panel recommends the following in the context of sharing decision-making with the patient when considering options:

1. That clinicians offer either psychotherapy or second-generation antidepressant.

2. If considering combined treatment, the panel recommends cognitive-behavioral therapy or interpersonal psychotherapy plus a second-generation antidepressant.”

 

- “For initial treatment of older adult patients with depression, the panel recommends the following in the context of shared decision-making with the patient:

1. Either group life review treatment or Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (either alone or added to usual care) over no treatment

2. Combined pharmacotherapy and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) over IPT alone. Of note, while the study upon which this is based used nortriptyline, the panel recommends a second-generation antidepressant due to the reduced risk of side effects.”

American Psychiatric Association (2010):

- “An antidepressant medication is recommended as an initial treatment choice for patients with mild to moderate major depressive disorder [I: Recommended with substantial clinical confidence] and definitely should be provided for those with severe major depressive disorder unless electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is planned [I: Recommended with substantial clinical confidence].”

- "Patients should be given a realistic notion of what can be expected during the different phases of treatment, including the likely time course of symptom response and the importance of adherence for successful treatment and prophylaxis [I]."

- "During the acute phase of treatment, patients should be carefully and systematically monitored on a regular basis to assess their response to pharmacotherapy, identify the emergence of side effects (e.g., gastrointestinal symptoms, sedation, insomnia, activation, changes in weight, and cardiovascular, neurological, anticholinergic, or sexual side effects), and assess patient safety [I]."

- “During the continuation phase of treatment, the patient should be carefully monitored for signs of possible relapse [I: Recommended with substantial clinical confidence]. Systematic assessment of symptoms, side effects, adherence, and functional status is essential [I: Recommended with substantial clinical confidence], and may be facilitated through the use of clinician- and/or patient-administered rating scales [II: Recommended with moderate clinical confidence]. To reduce the risk of relapse, patients who have been treated successfully with antidepressant medications in the acute phase should continue treatment with these agents for 4–9 months [I: Recommended with substantial clinical confidence].”

Department of Veterans Affairs, and Health Affairs, Department of Defense (2022):

- “For patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), we suggest using a quantitative measure of depression severity in the initial treatment planning and to monitor treatment progress at regular intervals to guide shared treatment decision making.” [Weak For]

 

- “In patients with MDD who achieve remission with antidepressant medication, we recommend continuation of antidepressants at the therapeutic dose for at least six months to decrease risk of relapse.” [Strong For]

Department of Veterans Affairs, and Health Affairs, Department of Defense (2016):

- ”In patients at high risk for recurrent depressive episodes and who are treated with pharmacotherapy, we recommend offering maintenance pharmacotherapy for at least 12 months and possibly indefinitely.” [Strong For]

 

- “After initiation of therapy or a change in treatment, we recommend monitoring patients at least monthly until the patient achieves remission. At minimum, assessments should include a measure of symptoms, adherence to medication and psychotherapy, and emergence of adverse effects.” [Strong For]

- “In patients with MDD who achieve remission with antidepressant medication, we recommend continuation of antidepressants at the therapeutic dose for at least six months to decrease risk of relapse.” [Strong For]

Improvement Notation

Higher score indicates better quality

Higher score indicates better quality

Higher score indicates better quality

Higher score indicates better quality

Definition *See CMS128v10.html *See CMS128v11.html

Intake Period: The 12-month window starting on May 1 of the year prior to the measurement period and ending on April 30 of the measurement period.

Index Prescription Start Date (IPSD): The date of the earliest prescription dispensing event for an antidepressant medication during the Intake Period.

The "continuous treatment" described in this measure allows for gaps in medication treatment up to a total 31 days during the 115-day period (numerator 1) or 52 days during the 232-day period (numerator 2). Gaps can include either gaps used to change medication, or treatment gaps to refill the same medication.

Intake Period: The 12-month window starting on May 1 of the year prior to the measurement period and ending on April 30 of the measurement period.

Index Prescription Start Date (IPSD): The date of the earliest prescription dispensing event for an antidepressant medication during the Intake Period.

The "continuous treatment" described in this measure allows for gaps in medication treatment up to a total 31 days during the 115-day period (numerator 1) or 52 days during the 232-day period (numerator 2). Gaps can include either gaps used to change medication, or treatment gaps to refill the same medication.

Guidance

To identify new treatment episodes for major depression, there must be a 105-day negative medication history (a period during which the patient was not taking antidepressant medication) prior to the dispensing event associated with the Index Prescription Start Date.

This eCQM is a patient-based measure.

 

This version of the eCQM uses QDM version 5.5. Please refer to the eCQI resource center for more information on the QDM.

To identify new treatment episodes for major depression, there must be a 105-day negative medication history (a period during which the patient was not taking antidepressant medication) prior to the dispensing event associated with the IPSD.

This eCQM is a patient-based measure.

 

This version of the eCQM uses QDM version 5.6. Please refer to the QDM page for more information on the QDM.

To identify new treatment episodes for major depression, there must be a 105-day negative medication history (a period during which the patient was not taking antidepressant medication) prior to the dispensing event associated with the IPSD.

This eCQM is a patient-based measure.

 

This version of the eCQM uses QDM version 5.6. Please refer to the QDM page for more information on the QDM.

To identify new treatment episodes for major depression, there must be a 105-day negative medication history (a period during which the patient was not taking antidepressant medication) prior to the dispensing event associated with the IPSD.

This eCQM is a patient-based measure.

 

This version of the eCQM uses QDM version 5.6. Please refer to the QDM page for more information on the QDM.

Initial Population

Patients 18 years of age and older who were dispensed antidepressant medications within 245 days (8 months) prior to the measurement period through the first 120 days (4 months) of the measurement period, and were diagnosed with major depression 60 days prior to, or 60 days after the dispensing event and had a visit 60 days prior to, or 60 days after the dispensing event

Patients 18 years of age and older as of April 30 of the measurement period who were dispensed antidepressant medications during the Intake Period, and were diagnosed with major depression 60 days prior to, or 60 days after the dispensing event and had a visit 60 days prior to, or 60 days after the dispensing event

Patients 18 years of age and older as of April 30 of the measurement period who were dispensed antidepressant medications during the Intake Period, and were diagnosed with major depression 60 days prior to, or 60 days after the dispensing event and had a visit 60 days prior to, or 60 days after the dispensing event

Patients 18 years of age and older as of the IPSD who were dispensed antidepressant medications during the Intake Period, and were diagnosed with major depression 60 days prior to, or 60 days after the dispensing event and had a visit 60 days prior to, or 60 days after the dispensing event

Denominator

Equals Initial Population

Equals Initial Population

Equals Initial Population

Equals Initial Population

Denominator Exclusions

Patients who were actively on an antidepressant medication in the 105 days prior to the Index Prescription Start Date.

Exclude patients who are in hospice care for any part of the measurement period.

Patients who were actively on an antidepressant medication in the 105 days prior to the IPSD.

Exclude patients who are in hospice care for any part of the measurement period.

Patients who were actively on an antidepressant medication in the 105 days prior to the IPSD.

Exclude patients who are in hospice care for any part of the measurement period.

Exclude patients who are in hospice care for any part of the measurement period.

Patients who were actively on an antidepressant medication in the 105 days prior to the IPSD.

Numerator

Numerator 1: Patients who have received antidepressant medication for at least 84 days (12 weeks) of continuous treatment during the 114-day period following the Index Prescription Start Date.

Numerator 2: Patients who have received antidepressant medications for at least 180 days (6 months) of continuous treatment during the 231-day period following the Index Prescription Start Date.

Numerator 1: Patients who have received antidepressant medication for at least 84 days (12 weeks) of continuous treatment beginning on the IPSD through 114 days after the IPSD (115 total days).

Numerator 2: Patients who have received antidepressant medications for at least 180 days (6 months) of continuous treatment beginning on the IPSD through 231 days after the IPSD (232 total days).

Numerator 1: Patients who have received antidepressant medication for at least 84 days (12 weeks) of continuous treatment beginning on the IPSD through 114 days after the IPSD (115 total days).

Numerator 2: Patients who have received antidepressant medications for at least 180 days (6 months) of continuous treatment beginning on the IPSD through 231 days after the IPSD (232 total days).

Numerator 1: Patients who have received antidepressant medication for at least 84 days (12 weeks) of continuous treatment beginning on the IPSD through 114 days after the IPSD (115 total days).

Numerator 2: Patients who have received antidepressant medications for at least 180 days (6 months) of continuous treatment beginning on the IPSD through 231 days after the IPSD (232 total days).

Numerator Exclusions

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Denominator Exceptions

None

None

None

None

Telehealth Eligible Yes Yes Yes Yes
Next Version No Version Available
Previous Version No Version Available
Specifications
Attachment Size
CMS128v10.html 87.21 KB
CMS128v10.zip 84.73 KB
CMS128v10-TRN.xlsx 19.4 KB
eCQM Jira Issue Tracker

Header

  • Updated the eCQM version number.

    Measure Section: eCQM Version Number

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Updated copyright.

    Measure Section: Copyright

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Updated the clinical recommendation statement to align with current clinical recommendations.

    Measure Section: Clinical Recommendation Statement

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Updated references.

    Measure Section: Reference

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Revised the definition to clarify timing related to the Index Prescription Start Date.

    Measure Section: Definition

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Revised the guidance to provide more clarity on the timing related to the Index Prescription Start Date.

    Measure Section: Guidance

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Replaced 'overlaps' or 'overlapping' in the denominator exclusions with plain language to clarify the measure intent.

    Measure Section: Denominator Exclusions

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

Logic

  • Added online assessments and telephone visits as appropriate encounters based on the increased use of telehealth services.

    Measure Section: Multiple Sections

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Added interval timing in the Earliest Antidepressant Dispensed 245 Days Before or 120 Days After Start of Measurement Period definition to increase readability.

    Measure Section: Multiple Sections

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Added the 'let' clause and consistent aliases in the Denominator Exclusions, Antidepressant Medication Period In 114 Days After Initial Dispense and Antidepressant Medication Period In 231 Days After Initial Dispense definitions to simplify and clarify logic.

    Measure Section: Multiple Sections

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Updated the names of Clinical Quality Language (CQL) definitions, functions, and/or aliases for clarification and to align with the CQL Style Guide.

    Measure Section: Multiple Sections

    Source of Change: Standards Update

  • Updated the version number of the Measure Authoring Tool (MAT) Global Common Functions Library (MATGlobalCommonFunctions-6.2.000). Updated the 'Inpatient Encounter' definition to include a 'day of' timing clarification. Added the following timing functions: Normalize Interval, Has Start, Has End, Latest, Latest Of, Earliest, and Earliest Of. Please see individual measure details for application of specific timing functions.

    Measure Section: Multiple Sections

    Source of Change: Standards Update

  • Added new NormalizeInterval function to timing attributes to decrease implementation burden due to variable use of timing attributes for select QDM data types. The NormalizeInterval function was applied, where applicable, for the following data elements: Assessment, Performed; Device, Applied; Diagnostic Study, Performed; Intervention, Performed; Laboratory Test, Performed; Medication, Administered; Medication, Dispensed; Physical Exam, Performed; Procedure, Performed; Substance, Administered.

    Measure Section: Multiple Sections

    Source of Change: Standards Update

  • Updated Hospice CQL Library to version 3.0.000.

    Measure Section: Multiple Sections

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

Value Set

The VSAC is the source of truth for the value set content, please visit the VSAC for downloads of current value sets.

  • Added value set Online Assessment (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1089) based on change in measure requirements/measure specification.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Added value set Telephone Visits (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1080) based on review by technical experts, SMEs, and/or public feedback.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Value set Major Depression (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.105.12.1007): Added 1 SNOMED CT code (16264621000119109) based on terminology update. Deleted 6 SNOMED CT codes (191601008, 191602001, 231499006, 274948002, 300706003, 321717001) based on terminology update.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Value set Antidepressant Medication (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.196.12.1213): Deleted 10 RxNorm codes (1439840, 251200, 794947, 1298803, 199283, 199820, 313497, 857291, 857296, 857315) based on review by technical experts, SMEs, and/or public feedback.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Removed value set Telephone Evaluation (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1082) based on review by technical experts, SMEs, and/or public feedback.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Removed value set Telephone Management (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1053) based on review by technical experts, SMEs, and/or public feedback.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

Last Updated: Feb 13, 2024