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CMS Measure ID: CMS2v10    Performance/Reporting Period: 2021    Version: 10    NQF Number: 0418e
Description:

Percentage of patients aged 12 years and older screened for depression on the date of the encounter or up to 14 days prior to the date of the encounter using an age-appropriate standardized depression screening tool AND if positive, a follow-up plan is documented on the date of the eligible encounter

Data Elements and coded QDM Attributes contained within the eCQM

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Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Adolescent depression screening assessment' LOINC code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Assessment, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document completion of the assessment indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevant dateTime references timing for an assessment that occurs at a single point in time.
  • relevant Period references a start and stop time for an assessment that occurs over a time interval
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criterion.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Adult depression screening assessment' LOINC code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Assessment, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document completion of the assessment indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevant dateTime references timing for an assessment that occurs at a single point in time.
  • relevant Period references a start and stop time for an assessment that occurs over a time interval
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criterion.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent diagnoses of bipolar disorder.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category or attribute related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with mild to severe cases, brief episodes, or chronic disorders, which would indicate that there is a diagnosis of bipolar disorder documented by the healthcare provider.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Bipolar Diagnosis value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.600.450)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a current diagnosis of a depressed state or actual depressive disorder whether recurrent, chronic, or diagnosed as moderate, major, or severe.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category or attribute related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with depression diagnoses as well as depression as indicated as depressed mood or features, a single episode, or type of psychosis, or a reaction as related to depression.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Depression Diagnosis value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.600.145)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts in which a depression screen could be assessed and documented through an exam, assessment, interview or evaluation.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category or attribute related to Encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with wellness visits, annual visits, therapy evaluations, or primary or specialist physician office visits where a depression screen could be conducted.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Encounter to Screen for Depression value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.600.1916)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Encounter, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent visits for evaluations for physical therapy services.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with applicable codes for physical therapy evaluations.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Physical Therapy Evaluation value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1022)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Encounter, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent appropriate referrals specific to the child and adolescent age group for depression management.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Intervention.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with appropriate referrals as specific to the child and adolescent age group for depression management.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Intervention, Order: Referral for Adolescent Depression value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1570)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Intervention, Order"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document a request to perform the intervention indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: The time the order is signed; author dateTime.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent appropriate referrals specific to the adult age group for depression management.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Intervention.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with appropriate referrals as specific to the adult age group for depression management.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Intervention, Order: Referral for Adult Depression value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1571)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Intervention, Order"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document a request to perform the intervention indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: The time the order is signed; author dateTime.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent follow-up plans used to document a plan is in place for the treatment of depression that specifically pertains to the adolescent population.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category or attribute related to Intervention.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with emotional and coping support as well as mental health management in an attempt to follow up on previously evaluated and diagnosed depression or depressive disorder in the adolescent population.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Intervention, Performed: Follow Up for Adolescent Depression value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1569)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Intervention, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the completion of the intervention indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevant dateTime references the time the intervention is performed when the intervention occurs at a single point in time.
  • relevantPeriod references a start and stop time for an intervention that occurs over a time interval. relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the intervention begins.
    • stopTime - The time the intervention ends.
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criterion.

Notes:

  • Timing refers to a single instance of an intervention. If a measure seeks to evaluate multiple interventions over a period of time, the measure developer should use CQL logic to represent the query request.
  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
     
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent follow-up plans used to document a plan is in place for the treatment of depression specifically pertaining to the adult population.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category or attribute related to Intervention.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with emotional and coping support as well as mental health management in an attempt to follow up on previously evaluated and diagnosed depression or depressive disorder in the adult population.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Intervention, Performed: Follow Up for Adult Depression value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1568)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Intervention, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the completion of the intervention indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevant dateTime references the time the intervention is performed when the intervention occurs at a single point in time.
  • relevantPeriod references a start and stop time for an intervention that occurs over a time interval. relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the intervention begins.
    • stopTime - The time the intervention ends.
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criterion.

Notes:

  • Timing refers to a single instance of an intervention. If a measure seeks to evaluate multiple interventions over a period of time, the measure developer should use CQL logic to represent the query request.
  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
     
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent medications that are commonly used to treat adolescent depression.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category or attribute related to Medication.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with antidepressant medications as well as other recommended depressive management medications, specific to the child and adolescent age group, for depression management.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes medications that are not commonly used in the treatment of depression in the child and adolescent age group.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Order: Adolescent Depression Medications value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1567)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Medication, Order"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document a request to a pharmacy to provide the medication indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevantPeriod addresses the time referenced in the dosage instruction indicating when the medication administration should start and end.
  • In the initial publication of QDM 5.5, relevantPeriod referenced the validity period, i.e., the time period for which the ordered supply is authorized by the prescription authorizing the dispensing event.
  • For clarification, see Appendix 6.4 with additional guidance for referencing relevantPeriod updating the definition for Medication, Order, "Medication Dispensed", and "Substance, Order".
  • author dateTime references the date and time the medication order (prescription) is authored.

Notes:

  • When calculating cumulative medication duration, the stopTime may be present directly in the medication order. If the stopTime is not available, the duration in days is the difference between the relevantPeriod start and stop times multiplied by (1 + the number of refills).
  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Refer to Special Cases in Appendix A (Section 5.7) for scenarios to consider in calculating cumulative medication duration.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent medications that are commonly used to treat adult depression.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category or attribute related to Medication.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with antidepressant medications as well as other recommended depressive management medications, specific to the adult age group, for depression management.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes medications that are not commonly used in the treatment of depression in the adult age group.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Order: Adult Depression Medications value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1566)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Medication, Order"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document a request to a pharmacy to provide the medication indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevantPeriod addresses the time referenced in the dosage instruction indicating when the medication administration should start and end.
  • In the initial publication of QDM 5.5, relevantPeriod referenced the validity period, i.e., the time period for which the ordered supply is authorized by the prescription authorizing the dispensing event.
  • For clarification, see Appendix 6.4 with additional guidance for referencing relevantPeriod updating the definition for Medication, Order, "Medication Dispensed", and "Substance, Order".
  • author dateTime references the date and time the medication order (prescription) is authored.

Notes:

  • When calculating cumulative medication duration, the stopTime may be present directly in the medication order. If the stopTime is not available, the duration in days is the difference between the relevantPeriod start and stop times multiplied by (1 + the number of refills).
  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Refer to Special Cases in Appendix A (Section 5.7) for scenarios to consider in calculating cumulative medication duration.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent medical reasons for when a patient does not receive a therapy or service.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Negation Rationale.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with medically relevant reasons for not receiving a therapy or service.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: Medical Reason 1 value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1007)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

negationRationale

Indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the negation rationale attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes a world view that absence of evidence indicates information does not exist or an action did not happen. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use the CQL expression not exists with reference to the data element rather than the QDM data model. negation rationale in QDM signifies only a reason for such absence, i.e., the reason must be present to qualify for negation rationale. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is addressed in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, "Procedure, Performed not done." QDM versions starting with 5.3 use the syntax, "Procedure, not Performed." Section A-5 provides examples for expressing negation rationale in CQL.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this attribute. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a reason for patient refusal.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Negation Rationale.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with identifying a patient's reason for refusing treatment.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: Patient Declined 1 value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1582)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

negationRationale

Indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the negation rationale attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes a world view that absence of evidence indicates information does not exist or an action did not happen. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use the CQL expression not exists with reference to the data element rather than the QDM data model. negation rationale in QDM signifies only a reason for such absence, i.e., the reason must be present to qualify for negation rationale. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is addressed in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, "Procedure, Performed not done." QDM versions starting with 5.3 use the syntax, "Procedure, not Performed." Section A-5 provides examples for expressing negation rationale in CQL.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this attribute. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Birth date' LOINC code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Patient Characteristic, Birthdate"

The "Patient Characteristic Birthdate" should document the patient’s date of birth.

Timing: The "Patient Characteristic, Birthdate" is a single point in time representing the date and time of birth. It does not have a start and stop time.

Note: "Patient Characteristic Birthdate" is fixed to LOINC code 21112-8 (Birth date) and therefore cannot be further qualified with a value set.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: n/a Data Element Scope: n/a Inclusion Criteria: n/a Exclusion Criteria: n/a

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity: Ethnicity value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.837)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the ethnicities indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Ethnicity does not have a specific timing. Measures using "Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity" should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: Categories of types of health care payor entities as defined by the US Public Health Data Consortium SOP code system
Data Element Scope: @code in CCDA r2.1 template Planned Coverage [act: identifier urn:oid:2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.129 (open)] DYNAMIC
Inclusion Criteria: All codes in the code system
Exclusion Criteria: none

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Payer: Payer value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.3591)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Patient Characteristic, Payer"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the payers indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

The relevantPeriod addresses:

  • startTime – the first day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer.
  • stopTime – the last day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: n/a Data Element Scope: n/a Inclusion Criteria: n/a Exclusion Criteria: n/a

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Race: Race value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.836)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Patient Characteristic, Race"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the patient’s race.

Timing: Race does not have a specific timing. Measures using "Patient Characteristic, Race" should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: Gender identity restricted to only Male and Female used in administrative situations requiring a restriction to these two categories.
Data Element Scope: Gender
Inclusion Criteria: Male and Female only.
Exclusion Criteria: Any gender identity that is not male or female.

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Sex: ONC Administrative Sex value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

"Patient Characteristic, Sex"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient's sex matches the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Birth (administrative) sex does not have a specific timing.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent situations in which a depression screen was performed by the health care professional and the finding was negative for depression.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Assessment.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with screening for depression whereby the outcome is negative.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Result: Negative Depression Screening value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1564)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

result

The final consequences or data collected from the datatype. results can be used in four ways to express:

  • That a result is present in the electronic record but any entry is acceptable
  • A numerical result is reported directly as a value. Values may be integers or decimal numbers without units, or as a quantity with a value and units - examples:
    • 100mg/dL for a lab test
    • 140 mmHg for blood pressure
    • as a percentage (actually as a quantity with % as units)
    • as a titer or ratio (e.g., 1:4, 1:80)
  • A result that matches one of a specific set of coded concepts in a value set or a code that matches a direct reference code
  • A result as a dateTime ("Assessment, Performed" and components)
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent situations in which a depression screen was performed by the health care professional and the finding or result was positive for depression.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Assessment.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with screening for depression whereby the outcome is positive.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Result: Positive Depression Screening value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1565)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

result

The final consequences or data collected from the datatype. results can be used in four ways to express:

  • That a result is present in the electronic record but any entry is acceptable
  • A numerical result is reported directly as a value. Values may be integers or decimal numbers without units, or as a quantity with a value and units - examples:
    • 100mg/dL for a lab test
    • 140 mmHg for blood pressure
    • as a percentage (actually as a quantity with % as units)
    • as a titer or ratio (e.g., 1:4, 1:80)
  • A result that matches one of a specific set of coded concepts in a value set or a code that matches a direct reference code
  • A result as a dateTime ("Assessment, Performed" and components)