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Intervention, Performed

Performance/Reporting Period
QDM Datatype (QDM Version 5.3):

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the completion of the intervention indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: The Relevant Period addresses:

  • startTime – the time the intervention begins
  • stopTime – the time the intervention ends

NOTE - timing refers to a single instance of an intervention. If a measure seeks to evaluate multiple interventions over a period of time, the measure developer should use CQL logic to represent the query request.

QDM Category (QDM Version 5.3)


Intervention represents a course of action intended to achieve a result in the care of persons with health problems that does not involve direct physical contact with a patient. Examples include patient education and therapeutic communication.

QDM Attributes

Author dateTime

The time the data element was entered into the clinical software. Note, some datatypes include both Relevant Time and Author dateTime attributes. The purpose is to accommodate Author dateTime if the actual start and stop times are not available when evaluating for feasibility, and also to allow specification of a time for Negation Rationale.

Negation Rationale

The QDM attribute, negation rationale indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the 'negation rationale' attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes that any information expected will be in a clinical record. The situation is different when something that normally would be expected to be done is specifically not done because of a valid clinical reason (such as the patient is allergic, they are suffering from a complication, or some other rationale. In this case, the 'thing not done' is rarely documented, especially as a code, in the patient record. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use a CQL 'not exists' expression noted in the examples, and they must also capture the Negation rationale to capture a reason for the absence, i.e., the reason must be included to qualify as a negation rationale type expression. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is described in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, 'Procedure, Performed not done.' QDM 5.5 uses the syntax, 'Procedure, not Performed' and this is then associated with either a DRC or a value set used to identify 'the expected thing,' that in this case was not done. Negation Rationale attribute value indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing.


The thought process or justification for the datatype. In some measures, specific treatments are acceptable inclusion criteria only if a justified reason is present. Each of these measures uses a value set (often, but not exclusively, using SNOMED CT) to express acceptable justification reasons. Other measures specify reasons as justification for exclusions. Examples include patient, system, or medical-related reasons for declining to perform specific actions. Each of these measures also uses a value set to express acceptable justification reasons for declining to perform expected actions.

Relevant Period

Relevant Period addresses the time between the start of an action to the end of an action. Each datatype using relevant period defines specific definitions for the start and stop time for the action listed.


The final consequences or data collected from the datatype. Results can be used in four ways, to express: (1) That a result is present in the electronic record but any entry is acceptable. (2) A numerical result is reported directly as a value. Values may be integers or decimal numbers without units, or as a quantity with a value and units. Examples: 100 mg/dL for a lab test, 140 mmHg for blood pressure, as a percentage (actually a quantity with % as units), as a ratio (e.g., 1:4, 1:80). (3) A result that matches one of a specific set of coded concepts in a value set or a code that matches a direct reference code. (4) A result as a dateTime (Assessment, Performed and components). Note: Measures use Clinical Quality Language (CQL) logic to express the mathematical operators to constrain desired results to those above or below a certain threshold.


Indicates the particular stage of the action represented by the datatype.
Last Updated: Mar 31, 2020