Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the completion of the intervention indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.
- relevant dateTime references the time the intervention is performed when the intervention occurs at a single point in time.
- relevantPeriod references a start and stop time for an intervention that occurs over a time interval. relevantPeriod addresses:
- startTime - The time the intervention begins.
- stopTime - The time the intervention ends.
- author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
- Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criterion.
- Timing refers to a single instance of an intervention. If a measure seeks to evaluate multiple interventions over a period of time, the measure developer should use CQL logic to represent the query request.
- negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
Intervention represents a course of action intended to achieve a result in the care of persons with health problems that does not involve direct physical contact with a patient. Examples include patient education and therapeutic communication.
Note that while the QDM categories Intervention and Procedure are modeled identically and interoperability standards do not differentiate between them, both are retained in the QDM as they are more clinically expressive for clinicians to understand the measure intent.
The time the data element was entered into the clinical software. Note, some datatypes include both relevant dateTime and author dateTime attributes. When both are present, author dateTime is included to accommodate negation rationale.
The author dateTime addresses when an activity is documented. Documentation can occur at the beginning, during, at the end, or subsequent to the end of the activity. The author dateTime should be used only if the relevantPeriod cannot be obtained or to represent the time negation rationale is documented.
Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
Indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the negation rationale attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes a world view that absence of evidence indicates information does not exist or an action did not happen. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use the CQL expression not exists with reference to the data element rather than the QDM data model. negation rationale in QDM signifies only a reason for such absence, i.e., the reason must be present to qualify for negation rationale. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is addressed in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, "Procedure, Performed not done." QDM versions starting with 5.3 use the syntax, "Procedure, not Performed." Section A-5 provides examples for expressing negation rationale in CQL.
A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this attribute. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.
Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
Relevant Period addresses the time between the start of an action to the end of an action. Each datatype using relevant period defines specific definitions for the start and stop time for the action listed.
Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatyperelated actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod
The final consequences or data collected from the datatype. results can be used in four ways to express:
- That a result is present in the electronic record but any entry is acceptable
- A numerical result is reported directly as a value. Values may be integers or decimal numbers without units, or as a quantity with a value and units - examples:
- 100mg/dL for a lab test
- 140 mmHg for blood pressure
- as a percentage (actually as a quantity with % as units)
- as a titer or ratio (e.g., 1:4, 1:80)
- A result that matches one of a specific set of coded concepts in a value set or a code that matches a direct reference code
- A result as a dateTime ("Assessment, Performed" and components)