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Medication, Discharge

Performance/Reporting Period
2021
QDM Datatype (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update):

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the medications indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set should be taken by or given to the patient after being discharged from an inpatient encounter.

Note: the QDM "Medication, Discharge" datatype includes the supply attribute since some EHRs populate some medications on the medications discharge list provided to the patient from prescriptions written at discharge. Therefore, such newly prescribed medications may include the supply prescribed. Other medications on the discharge medication list will not have supply information since they represent medications for which the patient already has a supply at home or those the patient may purchase without prescription (i.e., over-the-counter). Thus, measure developers need to address data availability and feasibility when using the supply attribute with "Medication, Discharge".

Timing: The time the discharge medication list on the discharge instruction form is authored.

The "Medication, Discharge" QDM datatype includes two performers or actors - prescriber and recorder. The list of medications a patient should take after hospital discharge may come from two sources. The first source originates from medications ordered from a community pharmacy directly from the clinical software (e.g., eprescribing). That source will include the prescriber. The second method of providing content for the discharge medication list is via entry of medications known to be present in the home or over-the-counter substances, neither of which result in a prescription. The individual entering these latter medications is the recorder. Hence, content in the discharge medication list may include both performers.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
 

QDM Category (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Medication

Medication represents clinical drugs or chemical substances intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease. Medications are defined as directly referenced values or value sets containing values derived from code systems such as RxNorm.
QDM Attributes

Author dateTime

The time the data element was entered into the clinical software. Note, some datatypes include both relevant dateTime and author dateTime attributes. When both are present, author dateTime is included to accommodate negation rationale.

The author dateTime addresses when an activity is documented. Documentation can occur at the beginning, during, at the end, or subsequent to the end of the activity. The author dateTime should be used only if the relevantPeriod cannot be obtained or to represent the time negation rationale is documented.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Days supplied

Amount of medication expressed as a timing amount, i.e., the number of days over which the medication is expected to last.

Dosage

Details of how much medication is taken or is to be taken, i.e., the quantity (mg, cc, tablets) to be taken at a single administration.

Frequency

Indicates how frequently the medication or substance:
  • Is administered to a patient for an active medication (a).
  • Was administered to the patient (b).
  • Should be taken by the patient or administered to the patient (c).
  • Is recommended to be given to the patient (d).

Negation Rationale

Indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the negation rationale attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes a world view that absence of evidence indicates information does not exist or an action did not happen. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use the CQL expression not exists with reference to the data element rather than the QDM data model. negation rationale in QDM signifies only a reason for such absence, i.e., the reason must be present to qualify for negation rationale. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is addressed in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, "Procedure, Performed not done." QDM versions starting with 5.3 use the syntax, "Procedure, not Performed." Section A-5 provides examples for expressing negation rationale in CQL.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this attribute. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Refills

The number of refills allowed by the prescription.

Route

Refers to the path by which the medication or substance should be taken into the body system, such as intradermally, intrathecally, intramuscularly, intranasally, intravenously, orally, rectally, subcutaneously, sublingually, topically, or vaginally.

Supply

The quantity (amount) of therapeutic agent that was provided to a patient (i.e., number of doses, number of tablets or pills, volume of medication) indicated to be given during a procedure, diagnostic test, or medication, or substance administration.

Note: Prior versions of the QDM (4.3 and earlier) addressed dose with two potential interpretations - (1) the quantity to be taken or administered with each administration and (2) the quantity of medication supplied (i.e., number of doses). QDM 5.0 and subsequent versions clarify the difference by defining dosage and supply, respectively.

  • "Medication, Discharge" includes medications the provider has indicated the patient should take after dischange from the hospital. This medication list is part of the discharge instructions provided to a patient. The list may include medication supply if it incorporates medication orders written at discharge even though the supply will not be present for medications the patient already has at home or purchases over-the-counter (without a prescription).
Last Updated: Jun 08, 2020