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CMS Measure ID: CMS506v3    Performance/Reporting Period: 2021    Version: 3    NQF Number: 3316e
Description:

Proportion of inpatient hospitalizations for patients 18 years of age and older prescribed, or continued on, two or more opioids or an opioid and benzodiazepine concurrently at discharge

Data Elements contained within the eCQM + Expand all

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This group of value sets identifies patients with a current cancer diagnosis, either primary or secondary
Data Element Scope: The intent of this data element is to identify patients with a current cancer diagnosis
Inclusion Criteria: All forms of malignant neoplasms
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes benign tumors, cancer in situ, unspecified or uncertain behavior neoplasms as well as codes indicating 'in remission'

Constrained to codes in the Diagnoses: All Primary And Secondary Cancer value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1111.161)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Diagnoses

Coded diagnoses/problems addressed during the encounter. The diagnoses attribute has three components:

  • diagnosis (code)
  • presentOnAdmissionIndicator (code)
  • rank (positive integer)

To reference an encounter diagnosis, the expression must include the diagnosis code component. The other components are optional. The expression should only include the presentOnAdmissionIndicator if it is necessary to reference present on admission and should only include the rank if it is necessary to reference principal diagnosis.

The "Encounter, Performed" diagnosis attribute is intended to capture ALL diagnoses, including the principal diagnosis, i.e., all diagnoses addressed during the encounter represented by the diagnosis (code) used in the expression.The presentOnAdmissionIndicator (code) allows the eCQM developer to include criteria about whether each specific "Encounter, Performed" diagnosis was present at the time of admission (an indicator used to evaluate patient safety and adverse events). See presentOnAdmissionIndicator attribute definition for information about using the "Encounter, Performed" diagnosis attribute.

The "Encounter, Performed" diagnosis (rank) replaces the principal diagnosis attribute. To reference a principal diagnosis, eCQM developers should express the "Encounter, Performed" diagnosis with a diagnosis (code) and a rank of 1. See definition of rank attribute.

With an "Encounter, Performed" diagnosis, there is no dependency on the timing of the diagnosis in relation to the encounter.

  • Use of the "Encounter, Performed": diagnoses attribute component and the "Diagnosis" datatype is redundant for relating the diagnosis to the "Encounter, Performed". The "Encounter, Performed": diagnoses component syntax is preferred.
  • Referencing the same diagnosis using "Encounter, Performed" (diagnoses attribute) and "Diagnosis" (datatype) should only occur if the measure must define a specified length of a prevalencePeriod, e.g.,
    • The measure must assure that the diagnoses
      • have been present for at least some defined time period before the encounter, and
      • were addressed during the "Encounter, Performed"
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This group of value sets identifies patients with a current cancer diagnosis, either primary or secondary
Data Element Scope: The intent of this data element is to identify patients with a current cancer diagnosis
Inclusion Criteria: All forms of malignant neoplasms
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes benign tumors, cancer in situ, unspecified or uncertain behavior neoplasms as well as codes indicating 'in remission'

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: All Primary and Secondary Cancer value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1111.161)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Diagnosis

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent the most common inpatient encounter types.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Encounter. The intent of this data element is to identify patients who have had an inpatient encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with SNOMED CT codes representing inpatient encounter.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Encounter Inpatient value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.666.5.307)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Encounter, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent identifying patients receiving palliative, comfort or hospice care.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Intervention or Procedure.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with identifying patients receiving palliative, comfort or hospice care.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Intervention, Order: Palliative or Hospice Care value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.600.1.1579)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Intervention, Order

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document a request to perform the intervention indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: The time the order is signed; author dateTime.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent identifying patients receiving palliative, comfort or hospice care.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Intervention or Procedure.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with identifying patients receiving palliative, comfort or hospice care.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Intervention, Performed: Palliative or Hospice Care value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.600.1.1579)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Intervention, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the completion of the intervention indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevant dateTime references the time the intervention is performed when the intervention occurs at a single point in time.
  • relevantPeriod references a start and stop time for an intervention that occurs over a time interval. relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the intervention begins.
    • stopTime - The time the intervention ends.
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criterion.

Notes:

  • Timing refers to a single instance of an intervention. If a measure seeks to evaluate multiple interventions over a period of time, the measure developer should use CQL logic to represent the query request.
  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
     
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This group of value sets contains medications that represent DEA Schedules II and III opioid medications.
Data Element Scope: The intent of this data element is to identify prescriptions for DEA Schedules II and III opioid medications.
Inclusion Criteria: Include RxNorm SCD and GPCK type codes that identify opioid medications.
Exclusion Criteria: DEA Schedules IV and V opioid medications

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Discharge: Schedule II and III Opioid Medications value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1111.165)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Medication, Discharge

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the medications indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set should be taken by or given to the patient after being discharged from an inpatient encounter.

Note: the QDM "Medication, Discharge" datatype includes the supply attribute since some EHRs populate some medications on the medications discharge list provided to the patient from prescriptions written at discharge. Therefore, such newly prescribed medications may include the supply prescribed. Other medications on the discharge medication list will not have supply information since they represent medications for which the patient already has a supply at home or those the patient may purchase without prescription (i.e., over-the-counter). Thus, measure developers need to address data availability and feasibility when using the supply attribute with "Medication, Discharge".

Timing: The time the discharge medication list on the discharge instruction form is authored.

The "Medication, Discharge" QDM datatype includes two performers or actors - prescriber and recorder. The list of medications a patient should take after hospital discharge may come from two sources. The first source originates from medications ordered from a community pharmacy directly from the clinical software (e.g., eprescribing). That source will include the prescriber. The second method of providing content for the discharge medication list is via entry of medications known to be present in the home or over-the-counter substances, neither of which result in a prescription. The individual entering these latter medications is the recorder. Hence, content in the discharge medication list may include both performers.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
 

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This set of semantic clinical drugs (SCD) and generic pack (GPCK) RxNorm codes aims to capture orders for Schedule IV benzodiazepine medications.
Data Element Scope: The intent of this data element is to identify patients who are prescribed benzodiazepine medication.
Inclusion Criteria: Include RxNorm SCD and GPCK type codes that identify Schedule IV benzodiazepine medications.
Exclusion Criteria: None.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Discharge: Schedule IV Benzodiazepines value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1125.1)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Medication, Discharge

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the medications indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set should be taken by or given to the patient after being discharged from an inpatient encounter.

Note: the QDM "Medication, Discharge" datatype includes the supply attribute since some EHRs populate some medications on the medications discharge list provided to the patient from prescriptions written at discharge. Therefore, such newly prescribed medications may include the supply prescribed. Other medications on the discharge medication list will not have supply information since they represent medications for which the patient already has a supply at home or those the patient may purchase without prescription (i.e., over-the-counter). Thus, measure developers need to address data availability and feasibility when using the supply attribute with "Medication, Discharge".

Timing: The time the discharge medication list on the discharge instruction form is authored.

The "Medication, Discharge" QDM datatype includes two performers or actors - prescriber and recorder. The list of medications a patient should take after hospital discharge may come from two sources. The first source originates from medications ordered from a community pharmacy directly from the clinical software (e.g., eprescribing). That source will include the prescriber. The second method of providing content for the discharge medication list is via entry of medications known to be present in the home or over-the-counter substances, neither of which result in a prescription. The individual entering these latter medications is the recorder. Hence, content in the discharge medication list may include both performers.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
 

Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Birth date' LOINC code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Patient Characteristic, Birthdate

The "Patient Characteristic Birthdate" should document the patient’s date of birth.

Timing: The "Patient Characteristic, Birthdate" is a single point in time representing the date and time of birth. It does not have a start and stop time.

Note: "Patient Characteristic Birthdate" is fixed to LOINC code 21112-8 (Birth date) and therefore cannot be further qualified with a value set.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: n/a Data Element Scope: n/a Inclusion Criteria: n/a Exclusion Criteria: n/a

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity: Ethnicity value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.837)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the ethnicities indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Ethnicity does not have a specific timing. Measures using "Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity" should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: Categories of types of health care payor entities as defined by the US Public Health Data Consortium SOP code system
Data Element Scope: @code in CCDA r2.1 template Planned Coverage [act: identifier urn:oid:2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.129 (open)] DYNAMIC
Inclusion Criteria: All codes in the code system
Exclusion Criteria: none

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Payer: Payer value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.3591)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Patient Characteristic, Payer

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the payers indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

The relevantPeriod addresses:

  • startTime – the first day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer.
  • stopTime – the last day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: n/a Data Element Scope: n/a Inclusion Criteria: n/a Exclusion Criteria: n/a

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Race: Race value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.836)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Patient Characteristic, Race

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the patient’s race.

Timing: Race does not have a specific timing. Measures using "Patient Characteristic, Race" should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: Gender identity restricted to only Male and Female used in administrative situations requiring a restriction to these two categories.
Data Element Scope: Gender
Inclusion Criteria: Male and Female only.
Exclusion Criteria: Any gender identity that is not male or female.

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Sex: ONC Administrative Sex value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Patient Characteristic, Sex

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient's sex matches the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Birth (administrative) sex does not have a specific timing.