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CMS Measure ID: CMS135v9    Performance/Reporting Period: 2021    Version: 9    NQF Number: 0081e
Description:

Percentage of patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) with a current or prior left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% who were prescribed ACE inhibitor or ARB or ARNI therapy either within a 12-month period when seen in the outpatient setting OR at each hospital discharge

Data Elements contained within the eCQM + Expand all

Value Set Description from VSAC

Constrained to codes in the Allergy, Intolerance: ACE Inhibitor or ARB Ingredient value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1489)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Allergy Intolerance

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the allergy or intolerance and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • The prevalence period references the time from the onset date to the abatement date. Often an abatement date is not present as allergy or intolerance is ongoing.
  • The author dateTime references the recorded time.
Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'sacubitril' RXNORM code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Allergy Intolerance

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the allergy or intolerance and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • The prevalence period references the time from the onset date to the abatement date. Often an abatement date is not present as allergy or intolerance is ongoing.
  • The author dateTime references the recorded time.
Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Substance with angiotensin II receptor antagonist mechanism of action (substance)' SNOMEDCT code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Allergy Intolerance

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the allergy or intolerance and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • The prevalence period references the time from the onset date to the abatement date. Often an abatement date is not present as allergy or intolerance is ongoing.
  • The author dateTime references the recorded time.
Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Substance with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor mechanism of action (substance)' SNOMEDCT code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Allergy Intolerance

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the allergy or intolerance and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • The prevalence period references the time from the onset date to the abatement date. Often an abatement date is not present as allergy or intolerance is ongoing.
  • The author dateTime references the recorded time.
Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Substance with neprilysin inhibitor mechanism of action (substance)' SNOMEDCT code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Allergy Intolerance

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the allergy or intolerance and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • The prevalence period references the time from the onset date to the abatement date. Often an abatement date is not present as allergy or intolerance is ongoing.
  • The author dateTime references the recorded time.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a diagnosis of allergy to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB).
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with a diagnosis of allergy to ACE inhibitor or ARB.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Allergy to ACE Inhibitor or ARB value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1211)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Diagnosis

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a diagnosis of heart failure.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with a diagnosis of heart failure.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes chronic and acute right-sided heart failure, right heart failure, right ventricular failure, cardiac insufficiency due to prosthesis and following cardiac surgery, or pulmonale.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Heart Failure value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.376)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Diagnosis

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a diagnosis of intolerance to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB).
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with a diagnosis of intolerance to ACE inhibitor or ARB.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Intolerance to ACE Inhibitor or ARB value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1212)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Diagnosis

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with a diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1091)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Diagnosis

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a diagnosis of moderate or severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with a diagnosis of moderate or severe LVSD.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Moderate or Severe LVSD value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1090)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Diagnosis

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts related to the diagnosis of pregnancy.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts related to the diagnosis of pregnancy.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Pregnancy value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.378)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Diagnosis

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a diagnosis of renal failure due to Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with a diagnosis of renal failure due to ACE inhibitor.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Renal Failure Due to ACE Inhibitor value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1151)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Diagnosis

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The prevalencePeriod references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent ejection fraction.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Diagnostic Study.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with studies specific to obtaining left ventricular ejection fraction.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnostic Study, Performed: Ejection Fraction value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1134)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Diagnostic Study, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the completion of the diagnostic study indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevant dateTime references the time the diagnostic study is performed if it occurs at a single point in time.
  • relevantPeriod references a start and stop time for an assessment that occurs over a time interval:
    • startTime - when the diagnostic study is initiated.
    • stopTime - when the diagnostic study is completed.
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criterion.

Examples using relevantPeriod:

  • Initiation of a treadmill stress test to the time the treadmill stress test has completed
  • Initiation of the ultrasound study until completion of the ultrasound study

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

 

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent patients living in assisted living, domiciliary care or rest homes who have had an interaction with a member of their medical team.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype related to Encounter, Performed.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with services provided to new and established patients living in assisted living, domiciliary care or rest home. This is a grouping value set of CPT codes.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes visits in settings other than assisted living, domiciliary care or rest homes.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Care Services in Long-Term Residential Facility value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1014)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Encounter, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent inpatient hospital discharge services.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype related to Encounter, Performed.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with identifying hospital discharge day management. This is a grouping of CPT codes.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Discharge Services - Hospital Inpatient value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1007)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Encounter, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent patients who have had a home health visit by a provider for the evaluation or management of a new or existing patient.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype related to Encounter, Performed.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with home visits for the evaluation and management of a new or established patient. This is a grouping value set of CPT and SNOMED CT codes.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Home Healthcare Services value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1016)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Encounter, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent patients who have had an interaction with a member of their medical team on admission to a nursing facility.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype related to Encounter, Performed.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with services provided to new and established patients in a nursing facility (skilled, intermediate and long-term care facilities).
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes visits in settings other than a nursing facility.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Nursing Facility Visit value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1012)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Encounter, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent patients who have had an office or other outpatient visit.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype related to Encounter, Performed.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with comprehensive history, evaluation, and management of a patient in an office or outpatient facility. Patient can be presenting with problems that are minor to high severity. This is a grouping value set of CPT codes.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes non-office visits, including telehealth services.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Office Visit value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1001)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Encounter, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent patients who have had an outpatient interaction at an office with a member of their medical care team.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype related to Encounter, Performed.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with comprehensive history, evaluation, and management of a patient in an office or outpatient facility. Patient can be presenting with problems that are minor to high severity. This is a grouping value set of CPT and SNOMED CT codes.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes non-office visits, including telehealth services.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Outpatient Consultation value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1008)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Encounter, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent provider interactions with patients that include both face-to-face and virtual types of encounters.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with provider interactions with patients that are conducted in an office or care setting, as well as interactions which may occur via virtual methods, such as telephone calls, emails, and letters.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Patient Provider Interaction value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1012)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Encounter, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

The "Encounter, Performed" participant references the primary participant.

Previous versions of QDM included an attribute principal diagnosis, defined as the condition that, after study, was determined to be the principal cause of the admission. QDM version 5.5 addresses that concept using the diagnosis rank=1.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here

Timing:

  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - The time the encounter ended (discharge time).
  • author dateTime references the time the action was recorded.
  • Refer to the eCQM expression to determine allowable timings to meet measure criteria.

Notes:

  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
  • The locationPeriod is an attribute of the attribute facility location that addresses:
    • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location. The time the encounter began (admission time).
    • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), and angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) therapies.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Medication.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with semantic clinical drugs concepts associated with component, form and strength); generic; prescribable; ACE inhibitor, ARB therapy, combination drugs such as ACEI plus diuretic, ARB plus neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), ARB plus diuretic, ACEI plus calcium channel blocker, ARB plus calcium channel blocker, or ARB plus calcium channel blocker plus diuretic.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes branded drugs; components or ingredients only; non-prescribable.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Active: ACE Inhibitor or ARB or ARNI value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1139)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Medication, Active

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the medication indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is being taken by the patient. Keep in mind that when this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for a medication being taken for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.  

Timing:

  • relevant dateTime references the time the medication is active on the medication record if it was given or taken at a single point in time.
  • relevantPeriod references a start and stop time for an active medication on the medication record that is given or taken over a time interval:
  • The relevantPeriod addresses:
    • startTime - when the medication is first known to be used (generally the time of entry on the medication list).
    • stopTime - when the medication is no longer active.

In the original QDM 5.5 publication, stopTime stated: when the medication is discontinued (generally, the time discontinuation is recorded on the medication list). See Appendix 6.3 for clarification regarding definition of "Medication, Active" relevantPeriod stopTime.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), and angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) therapies.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Medication.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with semantic clinical drugs concepts associated with component, form and strength); generic; prescribable; ACE inhibitor, ARB therapy, combination drugs such as ACEI plus diuretic, ARB plus neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), ARB plus diuretic, ACEI plus calcium channel blocker, ARB plus calcium channel blocker, or ARB plus calcium channel blocker plus diuretic.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes branded drugs; components or ingredients only; non-prescribable.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Discharge: ACE Inhibitor or ARB or ARNI value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1139)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Medication, Discharge

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the medications indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set should be taken by or given to the patient after being discharged from an inpatient encounter.

Note: the QDM "Medication, Discharge" datatype includes the supply attribute since some EHRs populate some medications on the medications discharge list provided to the patient from prescriptions written at discharge. Therefore, such newly prescribed medications may include the supply prescribed. Other medications on the discharge medication list will not have supply information since they represent medications for which the patient already has a supply at home or those the patient may purchase without prescription (i.e., over-the-counter). Thus, measure developers need to address data availability and feasibility when using the supply attribute with "Medication, Discharge".

Timing: The time the discharge medication list on the discharge instruction form is authored.

The "Medication, Discharge" QDM datatype includes two performers or actors - prescriber and recorder. The list of medications a patient should take after hospital discharge may come from two sources. The first source originates from medications ordered from a community pharmacy directly from the clinical software (e.g., eprescribing). That source will include the prescriber. The second method of providing content for the discharge medication list is via entry of medications known to be present in the home or over-the-counter substances, neither of which result in a prescription. The individual entering these latter medications is the recorder. Hence, content in the discharge medication list may include both performers.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.
 

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), and angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) therapies.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Medication.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with semantic clinical drugs concepts associated with component, form and strength); generic; prescribable; ACE inhibitor, ARB therapy, combination drugs such as ACEI plus diuretic, ARB plus neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), ARB plus diuretic, ACEI plus calcium channel blocker, ARB plus calcium channel blocker, or ARB plus calcium channel blocker plus diuretic.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes branded drugs; components or ingredients only; non-prescribable.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Order: ACE Inhibitor or ARB or ARNI value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1139)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Medication, Order

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document a request to a pharmacy to provide the medication indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

  • relevantPeriod addresses the time referenced in the dosage instruction indicating when the medication administration should start and end.
  • In the initial publication of QDM 5.5, relevantPeriod referenced the validity period, i.e., the time period for which the ordered supply is authorized by the prescription authorizing the dispensing event.
  • For clarification, see Appendix 6.4 with additional guidance for referencing relevantPeriod updating the definition for Medication, Order, "Medication Dispensed", and "Substance, Order".
  • author dateTime references the date and time the medication order (prescription) is authored.

Notes:

  • When calculating cumulative medication duration, the stopTime may be present directly in the medication order. If the stopTime is not available, the duration in days is the difference between the relevantPeriod start and stop times multiplied by (1 + the number of refills).
  • negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Refer to Special Cases in Appendix A (Section 5.7) for scenarios to consider in calculating cumulative medication duration.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent medical reasons for when a patient does not receive a therapy or service.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Negation Rationale.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with medically relevant reasons for not receiving a therapy or service.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: Medical Reason 1 value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1007)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Negation Rationale

Indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the negation rationale attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes a world view that absence of evidence indicates information does not exist or an action did not happen. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use the CQL expression not exists with reference to the data element rather than the QDM data model. negation rationale in QDM signifies only a reason for such absence, i.e., the reason must be present to qualify for negation rationale. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is addressed in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, "Procedure, Performed not done." QDM versions starting with 5.3 use the syntax, "Procedure, not Performed." Section A-5 provides examples for expressing negation rationale in CQL.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this attribute. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent patient-specific reasons for when a patient does not receive a therapy or service.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Negation Rationale.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with patient-specific reasons for not receiving a therapy or service.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: Patient Reason value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1008)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Negation Rationale

Indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the negation rationale attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes a world view that absence of evidence indicates information does not exist or an action did not happen. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use the CQL expression not exists with reference to the data element rather than the QDM data model. negation rationale in QDM signifies only a reason for such absence, i.e., the reason must be present to qualify for negation rationale. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is addressed in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, "Procedure, Performed not done." QDM versions starting with 5.3 use the syntax, "Procedure, not Performed." Section A-5 provides examples for expressing negation rationale in CQL.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this attribute. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a patient reason for declining angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin ii receptor blocker (ARB) therapy.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Communication, or may be used as an attribute.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with patient reason declining ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: Patient Reason For ACE Inhibitor Or ARB Decline value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1140)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Negation Rationale

Indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the negation rationale attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes a world view that absence of evidence indicates information does not exist or an action did not happen. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use the CQL expression not exists with reference to the data element rather than the QDM data model. negation rationale in QDM signifies only a reason for such absence, i.e., the reason must be present to qualify for negation rationale. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is addressed in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, "Procedure, Performed not done." QDM versions starting with 5.3 use the syntax, "Procedure, not Performed." Section A-5 provides examples for expressing negation rationale in CQL.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this attribute. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent system-specific reasons for when a patient does not receive a therapy or service.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Negation Rationale.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with system-specific reasons for not receiving a therapy or service.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: System Reason value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1009)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Negation Rationale

Indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the negation rationale attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes a world view that absence of evidence indicates information does not exist or an action did not happen. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use the CQL expression not exists with reference to the data element rather than the QDM data model. negation rationale in QDM signifies only a reason for such absence, i.e., the reason must be present to qualify for negation rationale. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is addressed in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, "Procedure, Performed not done." QDM versions starting with 5.3 use the syntax, "Procedure, not Performed." Section A-5 provides examples for expressing negation rationale in CQL.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this attribute. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.

Note: negation rationale indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing and must not use relevantPeriod.

Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Birth date' LOINC code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Patient Characteristic, Birthdate

The "Patient Characteristic Birthdate" should document the patient’s date of birth.

Timing: The "Patient Characteristic, Birthdate" is a single point in time representing the date and time of birth. It does not have a start and stop time.

Note: "Patient Characteristic Birthdate" is fixed to LOINC code 21112-8 (Birth date) and therefore cannot be further qualified with a value set.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: n/a Data Element Scope: n/a Inclusion Criteria: n/a Exclusion Criteria: n/a

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity: Ethnicity value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.837)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the ethnicities indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Ethnicity does not have a specific timing. Measures using "Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity" should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: Categories of types of health care payor entities as defined by the US Public Health Data Consortium SOP code system
Data Element Scope: @code in CCDA r2.1 template Planned Coverage [act: identifier urn:oid:2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.129 (open)] DYNAMIC
Inclusion Criteria: All codes in the code system
Exclusion Criteria: none

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Payer: Payer value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.3591)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Patient Characteristic, Payer

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the payers indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing:

The relevantPeriod addresses:

  • startTime – the first day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer.
  • stopTime – the last day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: n/a Data Element Scope: n/a Inclusion Criteria: n/a Exclusion Criteria: n/a

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Race: Race value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.836)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Patient Characteristic, Race

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the patient’s race.

Timing: Race does not have a specific timing. Measures using "Patient Characteristic, Race" should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: Gender identity restricted to only Male and Female used in administrative situations requiring a restriction to these two categories.
Data Element Scope: Gender
Inclusion Criteria: Male and Female only.
Exclusion Criteria: Any gender identity that is not male or female.

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Sex: ONC Administrative Sex value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Patient Characteristic, Sex

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient's sex matches the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Birth (administrative) sex does not have a specific timing.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent severe and moderate levels of severity.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Severity.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with specific to severe and moderate levels of severity.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Severity: Moderate Or Severe value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.1092)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.5 Guidance Update)

Severity

Indicates the intensity of the specified datatype (e.g., persistent, moderate, or severe).