Individual Characteristic represents specific factors about a patient, clinician, provider, or facility. Included are demographics, behavioral factors, social or cultural factors, available resources, and preferences. Behaviors reference responses or actions that affect (either positively or negatively) health or healthcare. Included in this category are mental health issues, adherence issues unrelated to other factors or resources, coping ability, grief issues, and substance use/abuse. Social/cultural factors are characteristics of an individual related to family/caregiver support, education, and literacy (including health literacy), primary language, cultural beliefs (including health beliefs), persistent life stressors, spiritual and religious beliefs, immigration status, and history of abuse or neglect. Resources are means available to a patient to meet health and healthcare needs, which might include caregiver support, insurance coverage, financial resources, and community resources to which the patient is already connected and from which the patient is receiving benefit. Preferences are choices made by patients and their caregivers relative to options for care or treatment (including scheduling, care experience, and meeting of personal health goals) and the sharing and disclosure of their health information.