eMeasure Title

Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding

eMeasure Identifier (Measure Authoring Tool) 9 eMeasure Version number 5.1.000
NQF Number 0480 GUID 7d374c6a-3821-4333-a1bc-4531005d77b8
Measurement Period January 1, 20XX through December 31, 20XX
Measure Steward The Joint Commission
Measure Developer The Joint Commission
Endorsed By National Quality Forum
PC-05 Exclusive breast milk feeding during the newborn's entire hospitalization
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This material contains SNOMED Clinical Terms (R) (SNOMED CT[C]) copyright 2004-2015 International Health Terminology Standards Development Organization. All rights reserved.
These performance measures are not clinical guidelines and do not establish a standard of medical care, and have not been tested for all potential applications. The measures and specifications are provided without warranty.
Measure Scoring Proportion
Measure Type Process
Measure Item Count
Encounter, Performed: Encounter Inpatient
Risk Adjustment
Rate Aggregation
Exclusive breast milk feeding for the first 6 months of neonatal life has long been the expressed goal of World Health Organization (WHO), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). ACOG has recently reiterated its position (ACOG, 2007). A recent Cochrane review substantiates the benefits (Kramer et al., 2002). Much evidence has now focused on the prenatal and intrapartum period as critical for the success of exclusive (or any) BF (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2007; Petrova et al., 2007; Shealy et al., 2005; Taveras et al., 2004). Exclusive breast milk feeding rate during birth hospital stay has been calculated by the California Department of Public Health for the last several years using newborn genetic disease testing data. Healthy People 2010 and the CDC have also been active in promoting this goal.
Clinical Recommendation Statement
Exclusive breast milk feeding for the first 6 months of neonatal life can result in numerous long-term health benefits for both mother and newborn and is recommended by a number of national and international organizations. Evidence suggests that the prenatal and intrapartum period is critical for the success of exclusive (or any) breast feeding. Therefore, it is recommended that newborns are fed breast milk only from birth to discharge.
Improvement Notation
Improvement noted as an increase in the rate
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2005). Section on Breastfeeding. Policy Statement:
Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics.115:496-506.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (Feb. 2007). Committee on Obstetric Practice and Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women. Breastfeeding: Maternal and Infant Aspects. ACOG Committee Opinion 361.
California Department of Public Health. (2006). Genetic Disease Branch. California In-
Hospital Breastfeeding as Indicated on the Newborn Screening Test Form, Statewide, County and Hospital of Occurrence: Available at: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/data/statistics/Pages/BreastfeedingStatistics.aspx.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (Aug 3, 2007). Breastfeeding trends and updated national health objectives for exclusive breastfeeding--United States birth years 2000-2004. MMWR - Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 56(30):760-3.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity. Breastfeeding Report Card. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/pdf/2014breastfeedingreportcard.pdf
Ip, S., Chung, M., Raman, G., et al. (2007). Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/brfout/brfout.pdf
Kramer, M.S. & Kakuma, R. (2002).Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. [107 refs] Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (1):CD003517.
Petrova, A., Hegyi, T., & Mehta, R. (2007). Maternal race/ethnicity and one-month exclusive breastfeeding in association with the in-hospital feeding modality. Breastfeeding Medicine. 2(2):92-8.
Shealy, K.R., Li, R., Benton-Davis, S., & Grummer-Strawn, L.M. (2005).The CDC guide to breastfeeding interventions. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/pdf/breastfeeding_interventions.pdf.
Taveras, E.M., Li, R., Grummer-Strawn, L., Richardson, M., Marshall, R., Rego, V.H., Miroshnik, I., & Lieu, T.A. (2004). Opinions and practices of clinicians associated with continuation of exclusive breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 113(4):e283-90.
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2007). Healthy People 2010 Midcourse Review. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://www.healthypeople.gov/2010/data/midcourse/?visit=1.
World Health Organization. (1991). Indicators for assessing breastfeeding practices. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1991/WHO_CDD_SER_91.14.pdf?ua=1.
A discharge to a designated cancer center or children's hospital should be captured as a discharge to an acute care facility.

It is acceptable to calculate Gestational Age using the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ReVITALize guidelines, which define Gestational Age as calculated using the best obstetrical Estimated Due Date (EDD) based on the formula:
          Gestational Age= (280-(EDD-Reference Date))/7

where Reference Date is the date on which you are trying to determine gestational age. For PC-05, Reference Date is the Birth Date. 

Note however that the calculation may yield a non-whole number and gestational age should be rounded off to the nearest completed week. For example, an infant born on the 5th day of the 36th week (35 weeks and 5/7 days) is at a gestational age of 35 weeks, not 36 weeks.
Transmission Format
Initial Population
Single newborns with an estimated gestational age at birth of >=37 weeks who are born in the hospital and who did not have a diagnosis of galactosemia, were not subject to parenteral nutrition, and had a length of stay less than or equal to 120 days
Initial Population
Denominator Exclusions
Newborns who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), who were transferred to an acute care facility, or who expired during the hospitalization
Newborns who were fed breast milk only since birth
Numerator Exclusions
Not applicable
Denominator Exceptions
Supplemental Data Elements
For every patient evaluated by this measure also identify payer, race, ethnicity and sex

Table of Contents

Population Criteria

Data Criteria (QDM Variables)

Data Criteria (QDM Data Elements)

Supplemental Data Elements

Risk Adjustment Variables

Measure Set
eMeasure Perinatal Care (ePC)