eMeasure Title

Elective Delivery

eMeasure Identifier (Measure Authoring Tool) 113 eMeasure Version number 5.1.000
NQF Number 0469 GUID fd7ca18d-b56d-4bca-af35-71ce36b15246
Measurement Period January 1, 20XX through December 31, 20XX
Measure Steward The Joint Commission
Measure Developer The Joint Commission
Endorsed By National Quality Forum
Patients with elective vaginal deliveries or elective cesarean births at >= 37 and < 39 weeks of gestation completed
Measure specifications are in the Public Domain

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This material contains SNOMED Clinical Terms (R) (SNOMED CT(c)) copyright 2004-2015 International Health Terminology Standards Development Organization. All rights reserved.
These performance measures are not clinical guidelines and do not establish a standard of medical care, and have not been tested for all potential applications. The measures and specifications are provided without warranty.
Measure Scoring Proportion
Measure Type Process
Measure Item Count
Encounter, Performed: Encounter Inpatient
Risk Adjustment
Rate Aggregation
For almost 3 decades, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) have had in place a standard requiring 39 completed weeks gestation prior to ELECTIVE delivery, either vaginal or operative (ACOG, 1996). A survey conducted in 2007 of almost 20,000 births in HCA hospitals throughout the U.S. carried out in conjunction with the March of Dimes at the request of ACOG revealed that almost 1/3 of all babies delivered in the United States are electively delivered with 5% of all deliveries in the U.S. delivered in a manner violating ACOG/AAP guidelines. Most of these are for convenience, and result in significant short term neonatal morbidity (neonatal intensive care unit admission rates of 13- 21%) (Clark et al., 2009).

According to Glantz (2005), compared to spontaneous labor, elective inductions result in more cesarean births and longer maternal length of stay. The American Academy of Family Physicians (2000) also notes that elective induction doubles the cesarean delivery rate. Repeat elective cesarean births before 39 weeks gestation also result in higher rates of adverse respiratory outcomes, mechanical ventilation, sepsis and hypoglycemia for the newborns (Tita et al., 2009).
Clinical Recommendation Statement
Guidelines from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics do not support non-medically indicated elective deliveries at <39 weeks gestation. Evidence suggests that early term deliveries result in significant short term neonatal morbidity. Therefore, it is recommended that elective deliveries should not be performed at <39 weeks gestation unless medically-indicated.
Improvement Notation
Improvement noted as a decrease in the rate
American Academy of Family Physicians. (2000). Tips from Other Journals: Elective induction doubles cesarean delivery rate, 61, 4.Retrieved December 29, 2008 at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0215/p1173.html
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (November 1996). ACOG Educational Bulletin. 
Clark, S., Miller, D., Belfort, M., Dildy, G., Frye, D., & Meyers, J. (2009). Neonatal and maternal outcomes associated with elective delivery. [Electronic Version]. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 200:156.e1-156.e4. 
Glantz, J. (Apr.2005). Elective induction vs. spontaneous labor associations and outcomes. [Electronic Version]. J Reprod Med. 50(4):235-40.
Tita, A., Landon, M., Spong, C., Lai, Y., Leveno, K., Varner, M, et al. (2009). Timing of elective repeat cesarean delivery at term and neonatal outcomes. [Electronic Version]. NEJM. 360:2, 111-120.
Wherever the gestational age is mentioned with relative timing to delivery, the intent is to capture the estimated gestational age on the day of delivery. 

It is acceptable to calculate Gestational Age using the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ReVITALize guidelines, which define Gestational Age as calculated using the best obstetrical Estimated Due Date (EDD) based on the formula:
          Gestational Age= (280-(EDD-Reference Date))/7

where Reference Date is the date on which you are trying to determine gestational age. For PC-01, Reference Date is the Date of Delivery.

Note however that the calculation may yield a non-whole number and gestational age should be rounded off to the nearest completed week. For example, an infant born on the 5th day of the 36th week (35 weeks and 5/7 days) is at a gestational age of 35 weeks, not 36 weeks.
Transmission Format
Initial Population
Patients age >= 8 years and < 65 admitted to the hospital for inpatient acute care and had a length of stay < 120 days who undergo a delivery procedure
Patients delivering newborns with >= 37 and < 39 weeks of gestation completed
Denominator Exclusions
Patients with conditions possibly justifying elective delivery prior to 39 weeks gestation
Patients with elective deliveries by either: 
       -     Medical induction of labor while not in labor prior to the procedure
       -     Cesarean birth while not in labor and with no history of a prior uterine surgery
Numerator Exclusions
Not Applicable
Denominator Exceptions
Supplemental Data Elements
For every patient evaluated by this measure also identify payer, race, ethnicity and sex

Table of Contents

Population Criteria

Data Criteria (QDM Variables)

Data Criteria (QDM Data Elements)

Supplemental Data Elements

Risk Adjustment Variables

Measure Set
eMeasure Perinatal Care (ePC)