eCQM Title

Bone density evaluation for patients with prostate cancer and receiving androgen deprivation therapy

eCQM Identifier (Measure Authoring Tool) 645 eCQM Version number 3.1.000
NQF Number Not Applicable GUID 977b302e-cdf3-4ba2-8020-5e099d93ad18
Measurement Period January 1, 20XX through December 31, 20XX
Measure Steward Oregon Urology
Measure Developer Oregon Urology
Endorsed By None
Patients determined as having prostate cancer who are currently starting or undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), for an anticipated period of 12 months or greater and who receive an initial bone density evaluation. The bone density evaluation must be prior to the start of ADT or within 3 months of the start of ADT.
Limited proprietary coding is contained in the measure specifications for convenience. Users of the proprietary code sets should obtain all necessary licenses from the owners of these code sets. Oregon Urology Institute (OUI) and Large Urology Group Practice Association (LUGPA) disclaim all liability for use or accuracy of any Current Procedural Terminology (CPT- [R]) or other coding contained in the specifications.

CPT(R) contained in the Measure specifications is copyright 2004-2018 American Medical Association. LOINC(R) copyright 2004-2018 Regenstrief Institute, Inc. This material contains SNOMED Clinical Terms(R) (SNOMED CT[R]) copyright 2004-2018 International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation. ICD-10 copyright 2018 World Health Organization. All Rights Reserved.
The performance measure is not a clinical guideline and does not establish a standard of medical care, and has not been tested for all potential applications.


Due to technical limitations, registered trademarks are indicated by (R) or [R].
Measure Scoring Proportion
Measure Type Process
Risk Adjustment
Rate Aggregation
Androgen suppression as a treatment for prostate cancer can cause osteoporosis (Qaseem, 2008). Men undergoing prolonged androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) incur bone loss at a rate higher than menopausal women (Guise, 2007). In preserving bone health, the goal is to prevent or treat osteopenia/osteoporosis for the patient on ADT and to prevent or delay skeletal related events. The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommendations including a baseline assessment of bone density with a DEXA scan and daily calcium and Vitamin D supplementation (Watts, 2012). The DEXA scan is the gold standard for bone density screening. Men at risk for adverse bone consequences from chronic ADT do not always receive care according to evidence based guidelines. These findings call for improved processes that standardize evidence based practice including baseline and follow up bone density assessment (Watts, 2012).
Clinical Recommendation Statement
Bone density screening should be performed at the start of Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. It should also be performed every 2 years for the patient with continued ADT or for patients with known osteoporosis. Current insurance practice is to possibly cover the cost of bone density screening if osteoporosis is known or if there is a high risk drug. Some patients choose to delay bone density screening until after ADT is started and they therefore have insurance authorization due to the administration of a high risk drug.
Improvement Notation
A higher score indicates better quality
Cosman, F., deBeur, S., LeBoff, M., et al. (2014, June). Clinician’s guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis International, 25(10), 2359–2381. Retrieved from
Finkelstein, J., & Yu, E. (2017). Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and evaluation of osteoporosis in men. Retrieved from
Guise, T., Oefelein, M., Eastham, J., et al. (2007). Estrogenic side effects of androgen deprivation therapy. Reviews in Urology, 9(4), 163-180. Retrieved from
Qaseem, A., Snow, V., Shekelle, P., et al. (2008).Annals of Internal Medicine. Screening for osteoporosis in men: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians, 2008. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(9), 680-684. Retrieved from
Ward, R., Roberts, C., Bencardino, J., et al. (2016). American College of Radiology: ACR Appropriateness Criteria (R)—Osteoporosis and bone mineral density. Retrieved from
Watts, N., Adler, R., Bilezikian, ,J., et al. (2012, June). Osteoporosis in men: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline,  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 97(6), 1802–1822. Retrieved from
Data Criteria Value Set 2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1151.38 DEXA, Dual Energy Xray Absorptiometry, Bone Density for Urology Care contains 2 LOINC codes identifying the axial and appendicular skeleton and will meet the measure intent.

DEXA - Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry - A scan that measures the bone of the spine, hip or total body and measures bone mineral density. It is considered one of the most accurate measurements.
PDXA - Peripheral Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry - Bone mineral density measurement of the wrist, heel or finger.
In order to capture the practitioner's intent of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for a period of 12 months or greater, the custom HCPCS code of J1950,cont was removed in 2019 from to the First Androgen Deprivation Therapy definition as Procedure, Order and replaced by SNOMEDCT 456381000124102 which is Injection of leuprolide acetate for twelve month period (regime/therapy)
Transmission Format
Initial Population
Male patients with a qualifying encounter in the measurement period AND with a diagnosis of prostate cancer AND with an order for ADT or an active medication of ADT with an intent for treatment greater than or equal to 12 months during the measurement period
Equals Initial Population
Denominator Exclusions
Patients with a bone density evaluation within the two years prior to the start of or less than three months after the start of ADT treatment
Numerator Exclusions
Denominator Exceptions
Patient refused recommendation for a bone density evaluation after the start of ADT therapy
Supplemental Data Elements
For every patient evaluated by this measure also identify payer, race, ethnicity and sex

Table of Contents

Population Criteria




Data Criteria (QDM Data Elements)

Supplemental Data Elements

Risk Adjustment Variables

Measure Set