eCQM Title

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Beta-Blocker Therapy-Prior Myocardial Infarction (MI) or Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (LVEF <40%)

eCQM Identifier (Measure Authoring Tool) 145 eCQM Version number 7.2.000
NQF Number 0070 GUID 80744ae2-de81-4b16-a71d-69522eb865c5
Measurement Period January 1, 20XX through December 31, 20XX
Measure Steward PCPI(R) Foundation (PCPI[R])
Measure Developer American Medical Association (AMA)
Measure Developer PCPI(R) Foundation (PCPI[R])
Endorsed By National Quality Forum
Percentage of patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of coronary artery disease seen within a 12-month period who also have a prior MI or a current or prior LVEF <40% who were prescribed beta-blocker therapy
Copyright 2018 American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association and American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
The Measure is not a clinical guideline, does not establish a standard of medical care, and has not been tested for all potential applications. 

The Measure, while copyrighted, can be reproduced and distributed, without modification, for noncommercial purposes, eg, use by health care providers in connection with their practices. Commercial use is defined as the sale, license, or distribution of the Measure for commercial gain, or incorporation of the Measure into a product or service that is sold, licensed or distributed for commercial gain. 

Commercial uses of the Measure require a license agreement between the user and the American Medical Association (AMA), American College of Cardiology (ACC) or the American Heart Association (AHA). Neither the AMA, nor ACC, nor AHA, nor the former AMA-convened Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement(R) (AMA-PCPI), nor the PCPI (R) Foundation (PCPI[R]), nor their members shall be responsible for any use of the Measure. 

AMA and PCPI encourage use of the Measure by other health care professionals, where appropriate.

Limited proprietary coding is contained in the Measure specifications for convenience. Users of the proprietary code sets should obtain all necessary licenses from the owners of these code sets. The AMA, ACC, AHA, the PCPI and its members and former members of the AMA-PCPI disclaim all liability for use or accuracy of any Current Procedural Terminology (CPT[R]) or other coding contained in the specifications. 

CPT(R) contained in the Measure specifications is copyright 2004-2017 American Medical Association. LOINC(R) is copyright 2004-2017 Regenstrief Institute, Inc. This material contains SNOMED Clinical Terms(R) (SNOMED CT[R]) copyright 2004-2017 International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation. ICD-10 is copyright 2017 World Health Organization. All Rights Reserved.

Due to technical limitations, registered trademarks are indicated by (R) or [R].
Measure Scoring Proportion
Measure Type Process
Risk Adjustment
Rate Aggregation
This measure is intended to have one reporting rate, which aggregates the following populations into a single performance rate for reporting purposes: 
- Population 1: Patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVEF <40%)
- Population 2: Patients with a prior (within the past 3 years) myocardial infarction

For the purposes of this measure, a single performance rate can be calculated as follows:
Performance Rate = (Numerator 1 + Numerator 2)/ [(Denominator 1 - Denominator Exceptions 1) + (Denominator 2 - Denominator Exceptions 2)]
For patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), beta-blockers are recommended for 3 years after myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome. Beta-blockers, particularly carvedilol, metoprolol succinate, or bisoprolol which have been shown to reduce risk of death, are recommended indefinitely for patients with CAD and LV systolic dysfunction. These agents have proven efficacy in reducing angina onset and improving the ischemic threshold during exercise. In patients who have suffered an MI, beta-blockers significantly reduce deaths and recurrent MIs (ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS, 2012). 

Nonadherence to cardioprotective medications is prevalent among outpatients with CAD and can be associated with a broad range of adverse outcomes, including all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular hospitalizations, and the need for revascularization procedures (ACC/AHA, 2002).

This measure is intended to promote beta-blocker usage in select patients with CAD.
Clinical Recommendation Statement
Beta-blocker therapy should be started and continued for 3 years in all patients with normal LV function after MI or ACS. (Class I, Level of Evidence: B) (ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS, 2012)

Beta-blocker therapy should be used in all patients with LV systolic dysfunction (EF <= 40%) with heart failure or prior MI, unless contraindicated. (Use should be limited to carvedilol, metoprolol succinate, or bisoprolol, which have been shown to reduce risk of death.) (Class I, Level of Evidence: A) (ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS, 2012)
Improvement Notation
Higher score indicates better quality
Fihn SD, Gardin JM, Abrams J, Berra K, Blankenship JC, Dallas AP, Douglas PS, Foody JM, Gerber TC, Hinderliter AL, King SB III, Kligfield PD, Krumholz HM, Kwong RYK, Lim MJ, Linderbaum JA, Mack MJ, Munger MA, Prager RL, Sabik JF, Shaw LJ, Sikkema JD, Smith CR Jr, Smith SC Jr, Spertus JA, Williams SV. 2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:e44-164.
Gibbons RJ, Abrams J, Chatterjee K, Daley J, Deedwania PC, Douglas JS, Ferguson TB Jr., Fihn SD, Fraker TD Jr., Gardin JM, O'Rourke RA, Pasternak RC, Williams SV. ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for the management of patients with chronic stable angina: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1999 Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Chronic Stable Angina). 2002. Available at:
Prescribed may include prescription given to the patient for beta-blocker therapy at one or more visits in the measurement period OR patient already taking beta-blocker therapy as documented in current medication list.

Prior Myocardial Infarction (MI) for denominator 2 is limited to those occurring within the past 3 years.
Beta-blocker therapy:
- For patients with prior MI, beta-blocker therapy includes any agent within the beta-blocker drug class. As of 2015, no recommendations or evidence are cited in current stable ischemic heart disease guidelines for preferential use of specific agents
- For patients with prior LVEF <40%, beta-blocker therapy includes the following: bisoprolol, carvedilol, or sustained release metoprolol succinate

The requirement of two or more visits is to establish that the eligible professional or eligible clinician has an existing relationship with the patient.

A range value should satisfy the logic requirement for 'Ejection Fraction' as long as the ranged observation value clearly meets the less than 40% threshold noted in the denominator logic. A range that is inclusive of or greater than 40% would not meet the measure requirement.
Transmission Format
Initial Population
All patients aged 18 years and older with a diagnosis of coronary artery disease seen within a 12-month period
Equals Initial Population who also have prior (within the past 3 years) MI or a current or prior LVEF <40%
Denominator Exclusions
Patients who were prescribed beta-blocker therapy
Numerator Exclusions
Not Applicable
Denominator Exceptions
Documentation of medical reason(s) for not prescribing beta-blocker therapy (eg, allergy, intolerance, other medical reasons).

Documentation of patient reason(s) for not prescribing beta-blocker therapy (eg, patient declined, other patient reasons).

Documentation of system reason(s) for not prescribing beta-blocker therapy (eg, other reasons attributable to the health care system).
Supplemental Data Elements
For every patient evaluated by this measure also identify payer, race, ethnicity and sex

Table of Contents

Population Criteria




Data Criteria (QDM Data Elements)

Supplemental Data Elements

Risk Adjustment Variables

Measure Set