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CMS Measure ID: CMS645v3    Performance/Reporting Period: 2020    Version: 3    NQF Number: Not Applicable
Description:

Patients determined as having prostate cancer who are currently starting or undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), for an anticipated period of 12 months or greater and who receive an initial bone density evaluation. The bone density evaluation must be prior to the start of ADT or within 3 months of the start of ADT.

Data Elements and coded QDM Attributes contained within the eCQM

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Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent prostate cancer diagnosis.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Diagnosis.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with prostate cancer diagnoses.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnosis: Prostate Cancer value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.319)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

"Diagnosis"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the Condition/Diagnosis/Problem and its corresponding value set. The onset dateTime corresponds to the implicit start dateTime of the datatype and the abatement dateTime corresponds to the implicit stop dateTime of the datatype. If the abatement dateTime is not present, then the diagnosis is considered to still be active. When this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for an active diagnosis for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

Timing: The Prevalence Period references the time from the onset date to the abatement date.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent bone density x-ray studies.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Diagnostic Study or Order. The intent of this data element is to identify patients with low bone mineral density.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, DEXA) with 1 or more axial sites, axial skeleton (hips, pelvis, spine) or 1 or more appendicular skeleton sites (radius, wrist, heel).
Exclusion Criteria: No Exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnostic Study, Order: DEXA Dual Energy Xray Absorptiometry, Bone Density for Urology Care value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1151.38)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

"Diagnostic Study, Order"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document a request by a clinician or appropriately licensed care provider to an appropriate provider or organization to perform the diagnostic study indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set. The request may be in the form of a consultation or a direct order to the organization that performs the diagnostic study. Diagnostic studies are those that are not performed in the clinical laboratory. Such studies include but are not limited to imaging studies, cardiology studies (electrocardiogram, treadmill stress testing), pulmonary function testing, vascular laboratory testing, and others.

Timing: The time the order is signed; Author dateTime.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent bone density x-ray studies.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Diagnostic Study or Order. The intent of this data element is to identify patients with low bone mineral density.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, DEXA) with 1 or more axial sites, axial skeleton (hips, pelvis, spine) or 1 or more appendicular skeleton sites (radius, wrist, heel).
Exclusion Criteria: No Exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Diagnostic Study, Performed: DEXA Dual Energy Xray Absorptiometry, Bone Density for Urology Care value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1151.38)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

"Diagnostic Study, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the completion of the diagnostic study indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: The Relevant Period addresses:

  • startTime – when the diagnostic study is initiated
  • stopTime – when the diagnostic study is completed

Examples:

  • Initiation of a treadmill stress test to the time the treadmill stress test has completed
  • Initiation of the ultrasound study until completion of the ultrasound study
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent patients who have had an office or other outpatient visit.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype related to Encounter, Performed.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with comprehensive history, evaluation, and management of a patient in an office or outpatient facility. Patient can be presenting with problems that are minor to high severity. This is a grouping value set of CPT codes.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes non-office visits, including telehealth services.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Office Visit 1 value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1001)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

"Encounter, Performed"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.

Timing: The Relevant Period addresses:

  • startTime – the time the encounter began (admission time)
  • stopTime – the time the encounter ended (discharge time)

The Author dateTime addresses when an Encounter is documented. Documentation can occur at the beginning, during, at the end or subsequent to the end of an Encounter. The Author dateTime should be used only if the Relevant Period cannot be obtained.

The Location Period is an attribute of the attribute facility location addresses:

  • startTime -the time the patient arrived at the location;
  • stopTime -the time the patient departed from the location
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent androgen deprivation therapy as identified for urology care.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Medication. This data element is to list androgen deprivation therapy for urology care for prostate cancer.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with androgen deprivation therapy medications.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Active: Androgen deprivation therapy for Urology Care value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1151.48)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

"Medication, Active"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the medication indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is being taken by the patient. Keep in mind that when this datatype is used with timing relationships, the criterion is looking for a medication being taken for the time frame indicated by the timing relationships.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this datatype. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.  

Timing: The Relevant Period addresses:

  • startTime - when the medication is first known to be used (generally the time of entry on the medication list),
  • stopTime - when the medication is discontinued (generally, the time discontinuation is recorded on the medication list)
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a reason for patient refusal.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Negation Rationale.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with identifying a patient's reason for refusing treatment.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: Patient Reason Refused value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.600.791)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

negationRationale

The QDM attribute, negation rationale indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the 'negation rationale' attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes that any information expected will be in a clinical record. The situation is different when something that normally would be expected to be done is specifically not done because of a valid clinical reason (such as the patient is allergic, they are suffering from a complication, or some other rationale. In this case, the 'thing not done' is rarely documented, especially as a code, in the patient record. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use a CQL 'not exists' expression noted in the examples, and they must also capture the Negation rationale to capture a reason for the absence, i.e., the reason must be included to qualify as a negation rationale type expression. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is described in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, 'Procedure, Performed not done.' QDM 5.5 uses the syntax, 'Procedure, not Performed' and this is then associated with either a DRC or a value set used to identify 'the expected thing,' that in this case was not done. Negation Rationale attribute value indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing.

A QDM Known Issue has been identified related to this attribute. To see this QDM known Issue, please click here.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: n/a Data Element Scope: n/a Inclusion Criteria: n/a Exclusion Criteria: n/a

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity: Ethnicity value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.837)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

"Patient Characteristic Ethnicity"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the ethnicities indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Ethnicity does not have a specific timing. Measures using Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: Categories of types of health care payor entities as defined by the US Public Health Data Consortium SOP code system
Data Element Scope: @code in CCDA r2.1 template Planned Coverage [act: identifier urn:oid:2.16.840.1.113883.10.20.22.4.129 (open)] DYNAMIC
Inclusion Criteria: All codes in the code system
Exclusion Criteria: none

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Payer: Payer value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.3591)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

"Patient Characteristic Payer"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the payers indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: The Relevant Period addresses:

  • startTime – the first day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer
  • stopTime – the last day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer

 

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: n/a Data Element Scope: n/a Inclusion Criteria: n/a Exclusion Criteria: n/a

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Race: Race value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.836)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

"Patient Characteristic Race"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the patient’s race.

Timing: Race does not have a specific timing. Measures using Patient Characteristic, Race should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: Concepts that represent Male when assessing quality measures
Data Element Scope: Gender
Inclusion Criteria: Appropriate male gender concepts
Exclusion Criteria: concepts representing Female gender

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Sex: Male value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.560.100.1)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

"Patient Characteristic Sex"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient's sex matches the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Birth (administrative) sex does not have a specific timing.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: Gender identity restricted to only Male and Female used in administrative situations requiring a restriction to these two categories.
Data Element Scope: Gender
Inclusion Criteria: Male and Female only.
Exclusion Criteria: Any gender identity that is not male or female.

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Sex: ONC Administrative Sex value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

"Patient Characteristic Sex"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient's sex matches the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Birth (administrative) sex does not have a specific timing.

Direct Reference Code

Constrained to 'Injection of leuprolide acetate for twelve month period (regime/therapy)' SNOMEDCT code

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.4)

"Procedure, Order"

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document a request for the procedure indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: The time the order is signed; Author dateTime.