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CMS Measure ID:
Version:
7
NQF Number:
None
Performance/Reporting Period
2019
Description:

Ischemic stroke patients prescribed or continuing to take antithrombotic therapy at hospital discharge

Data Elements contained within the eCQM + Expand all

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent the discharge of a patient to an acute care facility.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Discharge Disposition. The intent of this data element is to identify the final place or setting to which the patient was discharged on the day of discharge from a particular inpatient encounter. This particular value set intends to identify patients who where discharged to an acute care facility.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with SNOMED CT codes representing short-term acute care hospitals, including specialty hospitals.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Discharge Disposition: Discharge To Acute Care Facility value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.87)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Discharge Disposition

The disposition or location to which the patient is transferred at the time of hospital discharge.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent procedures used to represent the discharge of a patient to a health care facility for hospice care.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Discharge Disposition. The intent of this data element is to identify the final place or setting to which the patient was discharged on the day of discharge from a particular inpatient encounter. This particular value set intends to identify patients who where discharged to a health care facility for hospice care.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with SNOMED CT codes representing health care facilities.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Discharge Disposition: Discharged To Health Care Facility For Hospice Care value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.207)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Discharge Disposition

The disposition or location to which the patient is transferred at the time of hospital discharge.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent procedures used to represent the discharge of a patient to home for hospice care.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Discharge Disposition. The intent of this data element is to identify the final place or setting to which the patient was discharged on the day of discharge from a particular inpatient encounter. This particular value set intends to identify patients who where discharged to home for hospice care.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with SNOMED CT codes representing discharge to home for hospice care.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Discharge Disposition: Discharged To Home For Hospice Care value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.209)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Discharge Disposition

The disposition or location to which the patient is transferred at the time of hospital discharge.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a patient leaving against medical advice.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Discharge status. The intent of this data element is to identify the final place or setting to which the patient was discharged on the day of discharge from a particular inpatient encounter. This particular value set intends to identify patients who left against medical advice.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with SNOMED CT codes representing leaving against medical advice.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Discharge Disposition: Left Against Medical Advice value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.308)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Discharge Disposition

The disposition or location to which the patient is transferred at the time of hospital discharge.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent a patient who has died in the hospital.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Discharge Disposition. The intent of this data element is to identify the discharge status of patient expired as an attribute of the inpatient encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with codes for a patient who had died in the hospital. Codes used are to be SNOMED CT codes only.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Discharge Disposition: Patient Expired value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.309)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Discharge Disposition

The disposition or location to which the patient is transferred at the time of hospital discharge.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent procedures representing an emergency department encounter.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Encounter. The intent of this data element is to identify patients who have had an emergency department encounter.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with an emergency department visit encounter using the SNOMED CT code system.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Emergency Department Visit value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.292)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Encounter, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

Timing: The Relevant Period addresses:

  • startTime – the time the encounter began (admission time)
  • stopTime – the time the encounter ended (discharge time)

The Author dateTime addresses when an Encounter is documented. Documentation can occur at the beginning, during, at the end or subsequent to the end of an Encounter. The Author dateTime should be used only if the Relevant Period cannot be obtained.

The Location Period is an attribute of the attribute facility location addresses:

  • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location;
  • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent procedures for non-elective inpatient encounters.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Encounter. The intent of this data element is to identify non-elective inpatient encounters.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with SNOMED CT codes representing non-elective inpatient encounters.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Encounter, Performed: Non-Elective Inpatient Encounter value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.424)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Encounter, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the encounter indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set is in progress or has been completed.

Timing: The Relevant Period addresses:

  • startTime – the time the encounter began (admission time)
  • stopTime – the time the encounter ended (discharge time)

The Author dateTime addresses when an Encounter is documented. Documentation can occur at the beginning, during, at the end or subsequent to the end of an Encounter. The Author dateTime should be used only if the Relevant Period cannot be obtained.

The Location Period is an attribute of the attribute facility location addresses:

  • startTime - the time the patient arrived at the location;
  • stopTime - the time the patient departed from the location
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent care regimes used to define comfort measure care.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Intervention. The intent of this data element is to identify patients receiving comfort measure care.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with SNOMED CT regime and therapy codes for comfort measures, terminal care, dying care and hospice care.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Intervention, Order: Comfort Measures value set (1.3.6.1.4.1.33895.1.3.0.45)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Intervention, Order

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document a request to perform the intervention indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: The time the order is signed; Author dateTime

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent care regimes used to define comfort measure care.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Intervention. The intent of this data element is to identify patients receiving comfort measure care.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with SNOMED CT regime and therapy codes for comfort measures, terminal care, dying care and hospice care.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Intervention, Performed: Comfort Measures value set (1.3.6.1.4.1.33895.1.3.0.45)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Intervention, Performed

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the completion of the intervention indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: The Relevant Period addresses:

  • startTime – the time the intervention begins
  • stopTime – the time the intervention ends

NOTE - timing refers to a single instance of an intervention. If a measure seeks to evaluate multiple interventions over a period of time, the measure developer should use CQL logic to represent the query request.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications used to reduce stroke mortality and morbidity.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Medication. The intent of this data element is to identify patients who receive antithrombotic therapy following stroke.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with single and multi-ingredient drugs. Oral, rectal, and injectable dose forms should be included. Antithrombotic medications includes only relevant concepts associated with anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes codes for enoxaparin and heparin generally given for VTE prophylaxis.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Administered: Antithrombotic Therapy value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.201)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Medication, Administered

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the medication indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set was actually administered to the patient.

Timing: The Relevant Period addresses:

  • startTime - when a single medication administration event starts (e.g., the initiation of an intravenous infusion, or administering a pill or IM injection to a patient),
  • stopTime - when a single medication administration event ends (e.g., the end time of the intravenous infusion, or the administration of a pill or IM injection is completed - for pills and IM injections, the start and stop times are the same)

NOTE – Measure developers should address multiple administrations over a period of time using CQL logic.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications used to reduce stroke mortality and morbidity.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Medication. The intent of this data element is to identify patients who receive antithrombotic therapy following stroke.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with single and multi-ingredient drugs. Oral, rectal, and injectable dose forms should be included. Antithrombotic medications includes only relevant concepts associated with anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes codes for enoxaparin and heparin generally given for VTE prophylaxis.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Discharge: Antithrombotic Therapy value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.201)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Medication, Discharge

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the medications indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set should be taken by or given to the patient after being discharged from an inpatient encounter.

Timing: The time the discharge medication list on the discharge instruction form is authored.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications used to reduce stroke mortality and morbidity.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category related to Medication. The intent of this data element is to identify patients who receive antithrombotic therapy following stroke.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with single and multi-ingredient drugs. Oral, rectal, and injectable dose forms should be included. Antithrombotic medications includes only relevant concepts associated with anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes codes for enoxaparin and heparin generally given for VTE prophylaxis.

Constrained to codes in the Medication, Order: Antithrombotic Therapy value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.201)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Medication, Order

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document a request to a pharmacy to provide the medication indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: The Author dateTime is the time the order is signed.

Timing: The Relevant Period addresses:

  • startTime - when the first administration of the medication is expected. The first administration may be expected at the time of the order or at a specified future date (i.e., the active time for the order); such information should be identified in the medication order. If the startTime is not specified in the order, the startTime defaults to the Author dateTime (the time the order is signed).
  • stopTime - when the medication supply provided by the medication order is expected to be completed, including all fulfillments covered by the number of refills.

Note that when calculating cumulative medication duration, the stopTime may be present directly in the medication order. If the stopTime is not available, the duration in days is the difference between the Relevant Period start and stop times multiplied by (1 + the number of refills).

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent situations that represent medical reasons for not providing treatment.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Negation Rationale or Reason. The intent of this data element is to identify medical reasons for not providing treatment.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with SNOMED CT codes representing medical reasons for not providing treatment should be included.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: Medical Reason value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.473)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Negation Rationale

The QDM attribute, negation rationale indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the 'negation rationale' attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes that any information expected will be in a clinical record. The situation is different when something that normally would be expected to be done is specifically not done because of a valid clinical reason (such as the patient is allergic, they are suffering from a complication, or some other rationale. In this case, the 'thing not done' is rarely documented, especially as a code, in the patient record. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use a CQL 'not exists' expression noted in the examples, and they must also capture the Negation rationale to capture a reason for the absence, i.e., the reason must be included to qualify as a negation rationale type expression. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is described in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, 'Procedure, Performed not done.' QDM 5.5 uses the syntax, 'Procedure, not Performed' and this is then associated with either a DRC or a value set used to identify 'the expected thing,' that in this case was not done. Negation Rationale attribute value indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent situations representing a patient's refusal for treatment.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Reason. The intent of this data element is to identify reasons a patient refuses treatment.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with identifying refusal of any intervention (including procedures, treatment, medication, counseling, screening).​
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Negation Rationale: Patient Refusal value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.93)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Negation Rationale

The QDM attribute, negation rationale indicates the reason that an action was not performed. Only QDM datatypes that represent actions (e.g., performed, recommended, communication, order, dispensed) allow the 'negation rationale' attribute. The intent is to indicate a justification that such action did not happen as expected. This attribute specifically does not address the presence or absence of information in a clinical record (e.g., documented absence of allergies versus lack of documentation about allergies). QDM assumes that any information expected will be in a clinical record. The situation is different when something that normally would be expected to be done is specifically not done because of a valid clinical reason (such as the patient is allergic, they are suffering from a complication, or some other rationale. In this case, the 'thing not done' is rarely documented, especially as a code, in the patient record. To express such lack of evidence, an eCQM author should use a CQL 'not exists' expression noted in the examples, and they must also capture the Negation rationale to capture a reason for the absence, i.e., the reason must be included to qualify as a negation rationale type expression. The syntax in the human readable HQMF is described in CQL examples and in the MAT User Guide. Prior versions of QDM used the syntax, 'Procedure, Performed not done.' QDM 5.5 uses the syntax, 'Procedure, not Performed' and this is then associated with either a DRC or a value set used to identify 'the expected thing,' that in this case was not done. Negation Rationale attribute value indicates a one-time documentation of a reason an activity is not performed. Negation of QDM datatype-related actions for a reason always use the author dateTime attribute to reference timing.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent whether the patient is Hispanic or not; ethnicity category defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Center for Health Statistics.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype related to Patient Characteristic Ethnicity.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with ethnicity defined as Hispanic or Latino, or Not Hispanic or Latino.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic Ethnicity: Ethnicity value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.837)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Patient Characteristic Ethnicity

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the ethnicities indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Ethnicity does not have a specific timing. Measures using Patient Characteristic, Ethnicity should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent categories of types of health care payor entities as defined by the US Public Health Data Consortium SOP code system.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype related to Patient Characteristic Payer.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with payer codes in the code system.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic Payer: Payer value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.3591)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Patient Characteristic Payer

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient has one or more of the payers indicated by the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: The Relevant Period addresses:

  • startTime – the first day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer
  • stopTime – the last day of insurance coverage with the referenced payer
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent the general race category reported by the patient - subject may have more than one; defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Center for Health Statistics.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype related to Patient Characteristic Race.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with the following race categories: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Other Race, White.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic Race: Race value set (2.16.840.1.114222.4.11.836)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Patient Characteristic Race

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document the patient’s race.

Timing: Race does not have a specific timing. Measures using Patient Characteristic, Race should address the most recent entry in the clinical record.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set contains concepts that represent gender identity restricted to only male and female used in administrative situations requiring a restriction to these two categories.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) datatype related to Patient Characteristic Sex.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes relevant concepts associated with gender concepts for male and female only.
Exclusion Criteria: Excludes any gender identity that is not male or female.

Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic Sex: ONC Administrative Sex value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1)

QDM Datatype and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Patient Characteristic Sex

Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patient's sex matches the QDM category and its corresponding value set.

Timing: Birth (administrative) sex does not have a specific timing.

Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set grouping contains concepts that represent patients who have had a hemorrhagic stroke, or stroke caused by hemorrhage.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) attribute related to Principal Diagnosis. The intent of this data element is to identify patients who have a diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke, or stroke caused by a hemorrhage.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with a diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke, or stroke caused by hemorrhage. This is a grouping of ICD-10-CM and SNOMED CT codes.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Principal Diagnosis: Hemorrhagic Stroke value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.212)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Principal Diagnosis

The coded diagnosis/problem established after study to be chiefly responsible for occasioning the admission of the patient to the hospital for care.
Value Set Description from VSAC
Clinical Focus: This value set grouping contains concepts that represent patients who have had a stroke caused by ischemia, where the blood supply is restricted to an area of the brain by something like thrombosis or an embolism.
Data Element Scope: This value set may use the Quality Data Model (QDM) category or attribute related to Diagnosis. The intent of this data element is to identify patients who have a diagnosis of ischemic stroke, or stroke caused by ischemia.
Inclusion Criteria: Includes only relevant concepts associated with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke, or stroke caused by ischemia. This is a grouping of ICD-10-CM and SNOMED CT codes and concepts.
Exclusion Criteria: No exclusions.

Constrained to codes in the Principal Diagnosis: Ischemic Stroke value set (2.16.840.1.113883.3.117.1.7.1.247)

QDM Attribute and Definition (QDM Version 5.3)

Principal Diagnosis

The coded diagnosis/problem established after study to be chiefly responsible for occasioning the admission of the patient to the hospital for care.