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Data capture

Data capture, or electronic data capture, is the process of extracting information from a paper of electronic document and converting it into data readable by a computer. Hyland. (n.d.). What is data capture? Retrieved September 21, 2021, from

Data element validity

Data element validity is the extent to which the information represented by the data element or code used in the measure reflects the actual concept or event intended. For example

  • Use of a medication code as a proxy for a diagnosis code.
  • Data element response categories include all values necessary to provide an accurate response.

See also measure validity.

Data elements

A data element is any unit of data defined for processing, e.g., account number, name, address, and city.

Data model

A data model is an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another. For instance, a data model that links guideline information with clinical data for the patient. Guru99. (n.d.). Data modelling: Conceptual, logical, physical model types. Retrieved September 21, 2021, from

Decision Model and Notation

Decision Model and Notation (DMN) is a standard published by the Object Management Group. It is a standard approach for describing and modeling repeatable decisions within organizations to ensure that decision models are interchangeable across organizations. HEFLO. (n.d.) What is decision model and notation (DMN)? Retrieved September 21, 2021 from

Decision tree or algorithm

A decision tree is an upside-down tree that makes decisions based on the conditions present in the data. It is a supervised machine learning algorithm where data are continuously divided at each row based on certain rules until the final outcome is generated. Great Learning Team. (2020, February 13). Decision tree algorithm explained with examples.


The denominator is the lower part of a fraction used to calculate a rate, proportion, or ratio. It can be the same as the initial population or a subset of the initial population to further constrain the population for the purpose of the measure. Continuous variable measures do not have a denominator, but instead define a measure population.

Denominator exception

A denominator exception is any condition that should remove a patient, procedure, or unit of measurement from the denominator of the performance rate only if the numerator criteria are not met. A denominator exception allows for adjustment of the calculated score for those providers with higher risk populations. A denominator exception also provides for the exercise of clinical judgment and should be specifically defined where capturing the information in a structured manner fits the clinical workflow. Denominator exception cases are removed from the denominator. However, the number of patients with valid exceptions may still be reported. Allowable reasons fall into three general categories - medical reasons, patient reasons, or system reasons. A denominator exception is used only in proportion measures.

Denominator exclusion

A denominator exclusion is a case that should be removed from the measure population and denominator before determining if numerator criteria are met. Denominator exclusions are used in proportion and ratio measures to help narrow the denominator. For example, a measure developer would list patients with bilateral lower extremity amputations as a denominator exclusion for a measure requiring foot exams. Continuous variable measures may use denominator exclusions but use the term measure population exclusion instead of denominator exclusion.

Derivative products

Derivative products, with respect to clinical practice guidelines, are products with content that is derived from the content of the practice guideline, e.g., CDS, patient/family guides, pocket cards, phone apps for clinicians, continuing education programs. 

Digital platform

A digital platform is an established device or web-based platform for presenting cloud technology and content, such as Facebook, Twitter, Blogs, Websites, and sometimes short message service (SMS). This is in contrast to an analog platform, e.g., billboards, direct mail, telemarketing, events, word-of-mouth, etc.

Digital Quality Measures

CMS draft definition - A digital quality measure (dQM) is a software that processes digital data to produce a measure score or measure scores. Data sources for dQMs may include administrative systems, electronically submitted clinical assessment data, case management systems, EHRs, instruments (for example, medical devices and wearable devices), patient portals or applications (for example, for collection of patient-generated health data), health information exchanges (HIEs) or registries, and other sources.

Direct reference code

A direct reference code (DRC) is a specific code that is referenced directly in the eCQM logic to describe a data element or one of its attributes. Direct reference code metadata include the description of the code, the code system from which the code is derived, and the version of that code system.