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Appropriate Use of DXA Scans in Women Under 65 Years Who Do Not Meet the Risk Factor Profile for Osteoporotic Fracture

Measure Information 2021 Performance Period
CMS eCQM ID CMS249v3
NQF Number 3475e
Description

Percentage of female patients 50 to 64 years of age without select risk factors for osteoporotic fracture who received an order for a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan during the measurement period

Initial Population

Female patients ages 50 to 64 years with an encounter during the measurement period

Denominator

Equals Initial Population

Denominator Exclusions

Exclude patients with a combination of risk factors (as determined by age) or one of the independent risk factors

Ages: 50-54 (>=4 combination risk factors) or 1 independent risk factor

Ages: 55-59 (>=3 combination risk factors) or 1 independent risk factor

Ages: 60-64 (>=2 combination risk factors) or 1 independent risk factor

COMBINATION RISK FACTORS [The following risk factors are all combination risk factors; they are grouped by when they occur in relation to the measurement period]:

The following risk factors may occur any time in the patient's history but must be active during the measurement period:

White (race)

BMI <= 20 kg/m2 (must be the first BMI of the measurement period)

Smoker (current during the measurement period)

Alcohol consumption (> two units per day (one unit is 12 oz. of beer, 4 oz. of wine, or 1 oz. of liquor))

The following risk factor may occur any time in the patient's history and must not start during the measurement period:

Osteopenia

The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history or during the measurement period:

Rheumatoid arthritis

Hyperthyroidism

Malabsorption Syndromes: celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, malabsorption

Chronic liver disease

Chronic malnutrition

The following risk factors may occur any time in the patient's history and do not need to be active at the start of the measurement period:

Documentation of history of hip fracture in parent

Osteoporotic fracture

Glucocorticoids (>= 5 mg/per day) [cumulative medication duration >= 90 days]

INDEPENDENT RISK FACTORS (The following risk factors are all independent risk factors; they are grouped by when they occur in relation to the measurement period):

The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history and must not start during the measurement period:

Osteoporosis

The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history prior to the start of the measurement period, but do not need to be active during the measurement period:

Gastric bypass

FRAX[R] ten-year probability of all major osteoporosis related fracture >= 8.4 percent

Aromatase inhibitors

The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history or during the measurement period:

Type I Diabetes

End stage renal disease

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Ankylosing spondylitis

Psoriatic arthritis

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Cushing's syndrome

Hyperparathyroidism

Marfan syndrome

Lupus

Numerator

Female patients who received an order for at least one DXA scan in the measurement period

Numerator Exclusions

Not Applicable

Denominator Exceptions

None

Measure Steward Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
Quality Domain Efficiency and Cost Reduction
Measure Scoring Proportion measure
Measure Type Process measure
Improvement Notation

Lower score indicates better quality

Guidance

There are two ways that a patient can be excluded from the measure:

1. The patient has a specific number of "combination" risk factors (the number of risk factors varies by age).

2. The patient has one or more of the "independent" risk factors, including a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture of 8.4 percent or higher as determined by the FRAX.

This eCQM is a patient-based measure.

This version of the eCQM uses QDM version 5.5. Please refer to the eCQI resource center for more information on the QDM.

MIPS Quality ID 472
Meaningful Measure Appropriate Use of Healthcare
Telehealth Eligible Yes
Next Version
Previous Version No Version Available

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Measure Information 2021 Performance Period 2022 Performance Period 2023 Performance Period
Title Appropriate Use of DXA Scans in Women Under 65 Years Who Do Not Meet the Risk Factor Profile for Osteoporotic Fracture Appropriate Use of DXA Scans in Women Under 65 Years Who Do Not Meet the Risk Factor Profile for Osteoporotic Fracture Appropriate Use of DXA Scans in Women Under 65 Years Who Do Not Meet the Risk Factor Profile for Osteoporotic Fracture
CMS eCQM ID CMS249v3 CMS249v4 CMS249v5
NQF Number 3475e 3475e 3475e
Description

Percentage of female patients 50 to 64 years of age without select risk factors for osteoporotic fracture who received an order for a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan during the measurement period

Percentage of female patients 50 to 64 years of age without select risk factors for osteoporotic fracture who received an order for a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan during the measurement period

Percentage of female patients 50 to 64 years of age without select risk factors for osteoporotic fracture who received an order for a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan during the measurement period

Initial Population

Female patients ages 50 to 64 years with an encounter during the measurement period

Female patients ages 50 to 64 years with an encounter during the measurement period

Female patients ages 50 to 63 years at the start of the measurement period with an encounter during the measurement period

Denominator

Equals Initial Population

Equals Initial Population

Equals Initial Population

Denominator Exclusions Exclude patients with a combination of risk factors (as determined by age) or one of the independent risk factors Ages: 50-54 (>=4 combination risk factors) or 1 independent risk factor Ages: 55-59 (>=3 combination risk factors) or 1 independent risk factor Ages: 60-64 (>=2 combination risk factors) or 1 independent risk factor COMBINATION RISK FACTORS [The following risk factors are all combination risk factors; they are grouped by when they occur in relation to the measurement period]: The following risk factors may occur any time in the patient's history but must be active during the measurement period: White (race) BMI <= 20 kg/m2 (must be the first BMI of the measurement period) Smoker (current during the measurement period) Alcohol consumption (> two units per day (one unit is 12 oz. of beer, 4 oz. of wine, or 1 oz. of liquor)) The following risk factor may occur any time in the patient's history and must not start during the measurement period: Osteopenia The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history or during the measurement period: Rheumatoid arthritis Hyperthyroidism Malabsorption Syndromes: celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, malabsorption Chronic liver disease Chronic malnutrition The following risk factors may occur any time in the patient's history and do not need to be active at the start of the measurement period: Documentation of history of hip fracture in parent Osteoporotic fracture Glucocorticoids (>= 5 mg/per day) [cumulative medication duration >= 90 days] INDEPENDENT RISK FACTORS (The following risk factors are all independent risk factors; they are grouped by when they occur in relation to the measurement period): The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history and must not start during the measurement period: Osteoporosis The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history prior to the start of the measurement period, but do not need to be active during the measurement period: Gastric bypass FRAX[R] ten-year probability of all major osteoporosis related fracture >= 8.4 percent Aromatase inhibitors The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history or during the measurement period: Type I Diabetes End stage renal disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Ankylosing spondylitis Psoriatic arthritis Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Cushing's syndrome Hyperparathyroidism Marfan syndrome Lupus Exclude patients with a combination of risk factors (as determined by age) or one of the independent risk factors Ages: 50-54 (>=4 combination risk factors) or 1 independent risk factor Ages: 55-59 (>=3 combination risk factors) or 1 independent risk factor Ages: 60-64 (>=2 combination risk factors) or 1 independent risk factor COMBINATION RISK FACTORS [The following risk factors are all combination risk factors; they are grouped by when they occur in relation to the measurement period]: The following risk factors may occur any time in the patient's history but must be active during the measurement period: White (race) BMI <= 20 kg/m2 (must be the first BMI of the measurement period) Smoker (current during the measurement period) Alcohol consumption (> two units per day (one unit is 12 oz. of beer, 4 oz. of wine, or 1 oz. of liquor)) The following risk factor may occur any time in the patient's history and must not start during the measurement period: Osteopenia The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history or during the measurement period: Rheumatoid arthritis Hyperthyroidism Malabsorption Syndromes: celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, malabsorption Chronic liver disease Chronic malnutrition Osteoporotic fracture The following risk factors may occur any time in the patient's history prior to the start of the measurement period but do not need to be active at the start of the measurement period: Documentation of history of hip fracture in parent Glucocorticoids [cumulative medication duration >= 90 days] INDEPENDENT RISK FACTORS (The following risk factors are all independent risk factors; they are grouped by when they occur in relation to the measurement period): The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history and must not start during the measurement period: Osteoporosis The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history prior to the start of the measurement period, but do not need to be active during the measurement period: Gastric bypass FRAX[R] ten-year probability of all major osteoporosis related fracture >= 8.4 percent Aromatase inhibitors The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history or during the measurement period: Type I Diabetes End stage renal disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Ankylosing spondylitis Psoriatic arthritis Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Cushing's syndrome Hyperparathyroidism Marfan syndrome Lupus Exclude patients with one of the following risk factors.Risk factors are grouped by when they occur in relation to the measurement period.The following risk factors must be active during the measurement period:BMI Alcohol consumption (> two units per day (one unit is 12 oz. of beer, 4 oz. of wine, or 1 oz. of liquor))The following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history prior to the start of the measurement period:OsteoporosisOsteopeniaThe following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history prior to the start of the measurement period, but do not need to be active during the measurement period:Gastric bypassAromatase inhibitorsDocumentation of history of hip fracture in parentThe following risk factors may occur at any time in the patient's history or during the measurement period:Glucocorticoids [cumulative medication duration >= 90 days]Osteoporotic fractureMalabsorption Syndromes: celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, malabsorptionChronic malnutritionChronic liver diseaseRheumatoid arthritisHyperthyroidismType I Diabetes End stage renal diseaseOsteogenesis imperfectaAnkylosing spondylitisPsoriatic arthritisEhlers-Danlos syndromeCushing's syndromeHyperparathyroidismMarfan syndromeLupusChemotherapyMultiple myelomaPremature menopauseDouble or bilateral oophorectomyEating disorderAmenorrheaOrgan transplant
Numerator

Female patients who received an order for at least one DXA scan in the measurement period

Female patients who received an order for at least one DXA scan in the measurement period

Female patients who received an order for at least one DXA scan in the measurement period

Numerator Exclusions

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Exclude patients with a result on one of the following tools, which indicates the patient should be considered for bone density testing, anytime in the patient’s history prior to the time of the first DXA scan during the measurement period:

FRAX[R] ten-year probability of all major osteoporosis related fracture >= 8.4 percent

ORAI score of >=9

OSIRIS score of

OST score of

Denominator Exceptions

None

None

None

Measure Steward Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
Quality Domain Efficiency and Cost Reduction Efficiency and Cost Reduction Efficiency and Cost Reduction
Measure Scoring Proportion measure Proportion measure Proportion measure
Measure Type Process measure Process measure Process measure
Improvement Notation

Lower score indicates better quality

Lower score indicates better quality

Lower score indicates better quality

Guidance

There are two ways that a patient can be excluded from the measure:

1. The patient has a specific number of "combination" risk factors (the number of risk factors varies by age).

2. The patient has one or more of the "independent" risk factors, including a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture of 8.4 percent or higher as determined by the FRAX.

This eCQM is a patient-based measure.

This version of the eCQM uses QDM version 5.5. Please refer to the eCQI resource center for more information on the QDM.

There are two ways that a patient can be excluded from the measure:

1. The patient has a specific number of "combination" risk factors (the number of risk factors varies by age).

2. The patient has one or more of the "independent" risk factors, including a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture of 8.4 percent or higher as determined by the FRAX.

This eCQM is a patient-based measure.

This version of the eCQM uses QDM version 5.5. Please refer to the eCQI resource center (https://ecqi.healthit.gov/qdm) for more information on the QDM.

Patients are excluded from the measure if they have one or more risk factors for osteoporosis, including a result indicating that the patient should be considered for bone density testing on one of the following risk assessment instruments:

• 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture of 8.4 percent or higher as determined by the FRAX

• ORAI score of >=9

• OSIRIS score of

• OST score of

This eCQM is a patient-based measure.

This version of the eCQM uses QDM version 5.6. Please refer to the QDM page for more information on the QDM.

MIPS Quality ID 472 472 472
Meaningful Measure Appropriate Use of Healthcare Appropriate Use of Healthcare Appropriate Use of Healthcare
Telehealth Eligible Yes Yes Yes
Next Version CMS249v4 CMS249v5 No Version Available
Previous Version No Version Available

Release Notes

Header

  • Updated eCQM Version Number.

    Measure Section: eCQM Version Number

    Source of Change: Standards Update

  • Updated National Quality Forum (NQF) Number to NQF #3475e.

    Measure Section: NQF Number

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Updated endorsed by to National Quality Forum.

    Measure Section: Endorsed By

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Updated copyright.

    Measure Section: Copyright

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Updated references.

    Measure Section: Reference

    Source of Change: Standards Update

  • Replaced ‘provider’ with ‘clinician’ ​in the definition statement to provide a more accurate description of who uses the tool.

    Measure Section: Definition

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Added text to identify the Quality Data Model (QDM) version used in the measure specification.

    Measure Section: Guidance

    Source of Change: Standards Update

  • Added text to indicate whether the measure is patient-based or episode-based.

    Measure Section: Guidance

    Source of Change: Standards Update

Logic

  • Updated the names of Clinical Quality Language (CQL) definitions, functions, and/or aliases for clarification and to align with the CQL Style Guide.

    Measure Section: Definitions

    Source of Change: Standards Update

  • Updated timing logic for the follow-up assessment to use 'in Interval' to simplify logic and promote harmonization between measures.

    Measure Section: Definitions

    Source of Change: Measure Lead

  • Updated the names of CQL definitions, functions, and/or aliases for clarification and to align with the CQL Style Guide.

    Measure Section: Functions

    Source of Change: Standards Update

  • QDM v5.5 standards update: Added 'relevantDatetime' attribute to QDM datatypes. 'RelevantDatetime' indicates when the action occurred whereas 'authorDatetime' indicates when the action was recorded.

    Measure Section: Multiple Sections

    Source of Change: Standards Update

  • Updated CQL expression to conform with the HL7 Standard: Clinical Quality Language Specification, Release 1 STU 4 (CQL 1.4).

    Measure Section: Multiple Sections

    Source of Change: Standards Update

  • Updated version number of the Measure Authoring Tool (MAT) Global Common Functions Library (MATGlobalCommonFunctions-5.0.000). Updated definitions and functions in the MAT Global Common Functions Library to align with standards changes, CQL Style Guide, and to include one new function related to calculating length of hospital stays with observation stays.

    Measure Section: Multiple Sections

    Source of Change: Standards Update

Value Set

The VSAC is the source of truth for the value set content, please visit the VSAC for downloads of current value sets.

  • Value set Aromatase Inhibitors (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.196.12.1265): Deleted 2 RxNorm codes (1098617, 795141) based on terminology update.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Value set Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.113.12.1047): Added 5 ICD-10-CM codes (Q79.60, Q79.61, Q79.62, Q79.63, Q79.69) based on terminology update.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Value set End Stage Renal Disease (2.16.840.1.113883.3.526.3.353): Deleted 1 ICD-9-CM code (585.6) based on validity of code during timing of look back period.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Value set Gastric Bypass Surgery (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.198.12.1050): Deleted 1 SNOMED CT code (73206007) based on terminology update.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Value set Glucocorticoids (oral only) (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.196.12.1266): Deleted 2 RxNorm codes (199320, 795858) based on terminology update.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Value set Malabsorption Syndromes (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.199.12.1050): Deleted 1 SNOMED CT code (12109003) based on terminology update.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Value set Outpatient Consultation (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.101.12.1008): Deleted 1 SNOMED CT code (17436001) based on terminology update.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Value set Rheumatoid Arthritis (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.113.12.1005): Deleted 1 SNOMED CT code (239942007) based on terminology update.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Annual Update

  • Value set Type 1 Diabetes (2.16.840.1.113883.3.464.1003.103.12.1020): Deleted 1 SNOMED CT code (314894004) based on terminology update.

    Measure Section: Terminology

    Source of Change: Annual Update

Last Updated: May 04, 2022